Vitamins as Nrf2 Activators
Vitamins have often been referred to as "direct antioxidants". Dr. Joe McCord in an ABC primetime video mentioned that they were not good enough on their own to fight the enormous battle against free radical damage.
So when are vitamins effective in the fight against free radicals?Vitamins as direct antioxidants eliminate free radicals on a 1:1 basis. In other words, one molecule of a vitamin eliminates one free radical if it is purely acting as a direct antioxidant. However when that vitamin becomes a Nrf2 activator, it turns on the switch to the body's own antioxidant defenses and neutralizes free radicals more like a 1:1,000,000 ratio every second.
Below are the latest 15 Pubmed studies referencing vitamis and Nrf2 activation.
Serum‑free‑medium‑type mesenchymal stem cell culture supernatant exerts a protective effect on A549 lung epithelial cells in acute lung injury induced by H2O2
The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms and protective effect of serum‑free‑medium‑type fetal placental mesenchymal stem cell (fPMSC) culture supernatant on A549 lung epithelial cells following treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). A549 lung epithelial cells were stimulated with different concentrations of H2O2, and the survival rate of the cells was examined by Cell Counting Kit‑8 (CCK‑8) assay. It was concluded that the H2O2 concentration when the cell survival rate was at 50% was the optimum condition to create an oxidative damage model. Hoechst 33258 staining and western blot analysis was used to validate the A549 lung epithelial cell model. Serum‑free medium was used to culture fPMSCs, and A549 lung epithelial cells treated with H2O2 were cultured with passage 3 MSC supernatant for 24 h. This was termed the supernatant group. Simultaneously, a damage group that was stimulated with H2O2 only, and a vitamin C (VC) group that was treated with H2O2 followed by 100 µmol/l VC in culture medium was also established. The apoptosis of the three groups was detected by flow cytometry, and western blotting was used to detect apoptosis‑associated and nuclear factor erythroid 2‑like 2 (Nrf2)‑kelch‑like ECH‑associated protein 1 (Keap1)‑antioxidant response element/oxidative stress‑associated protein expression. Following the CCK‑8 test, 600 µmol/l H2O2 was selected to stimulate the A549 lung epithelial cells for 24 h, which resulted in a A549 cell survival rate of 56.41±3.31%. Hoechst 33258 staining and western blotting also confirmed the reliability of the model. Flow cytometry demonstrated that the apoptotic rate of the cells in the VC and supernatant groups was reduced compared with that in the injury group. The difference between the supernatant group and the injury group was statistically significant. The detection of apoptosis‑associated proteins by western blotting revealed that the expression of apoptosis regulator BAX and Caspase‑3 in the VC and supernatant groups was decreased. Furthermore, the expression of B‑cell lymphoma‑2 was increased compared with that in the injury group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Compared with that in the injury group, the expression of Nrf2 increased in the VC and supernatant groups, whereas the expression of Keap1 was decreased, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, fPMSC supernatant exhibited an antioxidant capacity in A549 lung epithelial cells treated with H2O2 as a model of acute lung injury. The supernatant was found to reduce oxidative damage and inhibit apoptosis.
Cellular stress and AMPK activation as a common mechanism of action linking the effects of metformin and diverse compounds that alleviate accelerated aging defects in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an accelerated aging phenotype that typically leads to death via stroke or myocardial infarction at approximately 14.6 years of age. Most cases of HGPS have been linked to the extensive use of a cryptic splice donor site located in the LMNA gene due to a de novo mutation, generating a truncated and toxic protein known as progerin. Progerin accumulation in the nuclear membrane and within the nucleus distorts the nuclear architecture and negatively effects nuclear processes including DNA replication and repair, leading to accelerated cellular aging and premature senescence. The serine-arginine rich splicing factor SRSF1 (also known as ASF/SF2) has recently been shown to modulate alternative splicing of the LMNA gene, with SRSF1 inhibition significantly reducing progerin at both the mRNA and protein levels. In 2014, we hypothesized for the first time that compounds including metformin that induce activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master metabolic regulator activated by cellular stress (e.g. increases in intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species, and/or an AMP(ADP)/ATP ratio increase, etc.), will beneficially alter gene splicing in progeria cells by inhibiting SRSF1, thus lowering progerin levels and altering the LMNA pre-mRNA splicing ratio. Recent evidence has substantiated this hypothesis, with metformin significantly reducing the mRNA and protein levels of both SRSF1 and progerin, activating AMPK, and alleviating pathological defects in HGPS cells. Metformin has also recently been shown to beneficially alter gene splicing in normal humans. Interestingly, several chemically distinct compounds, including rapamycin, methylene blue, all-trans retinoic acid, MG132, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, sulforaphane, and oltipraz have each been shown to alleviate accelerated aging defects in patient-derived HGPS cells. Each of these compounds has also been independently shown to induce AMPK activation. Because these compounds improve accelerated aging defects in HGPS cells either by enhancing mitochondrial functionality, increasing Nrf2 activity, inducing autophagy, or by altering gene splicing and because AMPK activation beneficially modulates each of the aforementioned processes, it is our hypothesis that cellular stress-induced AMPK activation represents an indirect yet common mechanism of action linking such chemically diverse compounds with the beneficial effects of those compounds observed in HGPS cells. As normal humans also produce progerin at much lower levels through a similar mechanism, compounds that safely induce AMPK activation may have wide-ranging implications for both normal and pathological aging.
Vitamin D potentiates anti-tumor activity of 5-fluorouracil via modulating caspase-3 and TGF-β1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma-induced in rats
The role of vitamin D (Vit D) either alone or in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in thioacetamide (TAA) induced-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats was investigated. Fifty male Sprague-Dawely rats were randomized into: control group and four groups receiving TAA (200 mg/Kg) i.p twice per week for 16 weeks that were further divided into HCC group, 5-FU group (75 mg/kg; ip; once weekly for 3 weeks starting from the 12th week), Vit D group (200 IU/kg/day; daily by oral tube; for 16 weeks) and 5-FU+Vit D group receiving the previously mentioned dosage regimens of 5-FU and Vit D. HCC was detected by histopathological changes in liver sections and the elevation of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level. 5-FU+Vit D significantly decreased gene expression of nuclear factor Erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NrF2) and TGF-β1 at both gene and protein level and serum AFP concentrations in comparison with their corresponding monotherapy. Moreover, 5-FU+Vit D enhanced apoptosis by increasing caspase-3 gene and protein expression. Conclusively, Vitamin D enhances anti-tumor activity of 5-FU in HCC-induced model and improves liver function of treated animals. Moreover, combination therapy in TAA induced-HCC rat model was more effective than 5-FU or Vit D by modulating TGF-β1, caspase-3 and NrF2 expressions.
Vitamin D protects human melanocytes against oxidative damage by activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling
Vitamin D analogs have been widely utilized for the treatment of vitiligo, but the molecular mechanism underlying their pharmacological effects (especially their antioxidant properties) has not yet been investigated. We evaluated the relationship between serum vitamin D level and oxidative damage severity in vitiligo patients, and investigated the molecular mechanism of vitamin D in protecting melanocytes against oxidative stress. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and malondialdehyde (MDA) were first measured in patients. A variety of in vitro experiments such as intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), cellular viability, migration, and apoptotic assays were then performed to detect the effects of vitamin D or β-catenin silencing on HO-treated melanocytes. Expression of Wnt/β-catenin, Nrf2, apoptotic, and MITF pathways was finally examined using quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. In this study, we initially found that vitamin D insufficiency was closely associated with the severity of oxidative stress in vitiligo patients. Using ex vivo cell models, we further showed that vitamin D positively modulated β-catenin signaling at both translational and posttranslational levels in melanocytes under oxidative stress. Like WNT agonists, vitamin D significantly inhibited ROS accumulation and cell apoptosis in HO-treated melanocytes and promoted their proliferative and migratory activity, while the protective effects of vitamin D against oxidative stress were abolished by β-catenin silencing in melanocytes. Furthermore, β-catenin deficiency also blocked the activation of Nrf2 and MITF as well as the inhibition of apoptosis induced by vitamin D. Taken together, vitamin D insufficiency was associated with severity of oxidative stress in vitiligo patients. Our work also provides new insights into the mechanism of vitamin D against vitiligo, in which vitamin D protects melanocytes against oxidative stress by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
The Effect of Long-Term Administration of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor URB597 on Oxidative Metabolism in the Heart of Rats with Primary and Secondary Hypertension
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)phenyl] -cyclohexylcarbamate (URB597) may influence redox balance and blood pressure through the modulation of endocannabinoids levels. Therefore, this study aimed to compare changes in oxidative metabolism and apoptosis in the hearts of rats with spontaneous hypertension (SHR) and secondary hypertension (11-deoxycorticosterone acetate; DOCA-salt rats) treated by URB597 via intraperitoneal injection for 14 days. The results showed that URB597 decreased the activity of NADPH and xanthine oxidases in both groups of rats. Moreover, in the heart of SHR rats, URB597 led to an increase of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity and levels (catalase, vitamin C, glutathione/glutathione disulfide [GSH/GSSG]) and upregulation of the thioredoxin system; however, NRf2 expression was downregulated. The opposite effect in relation to Nrf2 activity and the thioredoxin system was observed in DOCA-salt rats after URB597 administration. Despite improvement in antioxidant parameters, URB597 enhanced oxidative modifications of phospholipids (4-hydroxynonenal and isoprostanes) and proteins (carbonyl groups) in SHR heart, whereas 4-hydroxynonenal and carbonyl groups levels decreased in the heart of DOCA-salt rats. Obtained results suggest that examined lipid mediators are involved in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-independent and PPAR-dependent modulation of cardiac inflammatory reactions. Furthermore, decreased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and caspase 3 and 9) was observed after URB597 administration in the heart of both groups of hypertensive rats, whereas expression of the antiapoptotic protein (Bcl-2) increased in SHR rats. Long-term administration of URB597 altered cardiac redox status depending on the type of hypertension. URB597 enhanced oxidative metabolism and reduced pro-apoptotic factors in the heart of SHR rats, increasing the probability of heart metabolic disorders occurrence or progression.
A Novel Peptide, Nicotinyl⁻Isoleucine⁻Valine⁻Histidine (NA⁻IVH), Promotes Antioxidant Gene Expression and Wound Healing in HaCaT Cells
Nicotinamide (NA), a water-soluble vitamin B₃, has been shown to exert cellular-protective effects against reactive oxygen species (ROS). In order to improve the cellular-protective effects of NA, we synthesized a novel compound, nicotinyl⁻isoleucine⁻valine⁻histidine (NA⁻IVH), by combining NA with jellyfish peptides' IVH. In the present study, we examined the cellular-protective effects of the novel synthetic nicotinyl-peptide, NA⁻IVH. We found that NA⁻IVH enhances the radical scavenging activity with a robust increase of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like factor (Nrf2) expression in human HaCaT keratinocytes. In addition, NA⁻IVH protected the cells from hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced cell death. Interestingly, NA⁻IVH exhibited an improved wound-healing effect in a high glucose condition, possibly through the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Collectively, our results imply that a novel nicotinyl-peptide, NA⁻IVH, has a wound-healing effect in a hyperglycemic condition, possibly by modulating excessive ROS.
Effects and Mechanism of Nicotinamide Against UVA- and/or UVB-mediated DNA Damages in Normal Melanocytes
Melanoma incidences are increasing rapidly, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun is believed to be its major contributing factor. UV exposure causes DNA damage in skin which may initiate cutaneous skin cancers including melanoma. Melanoma arises from melanocytes, the melanin-producing skin cells, following genetic dysregulations resulting into hyperproliferative phenotype and neoplastic transformation. Both UVA and UVB exposure to the skin are believed to trigger melanocytic hyperplasia and melanomagenesis. Melanocytes by themselves are deficient in repair of oxidative DNA damage and UV-induced photoproducts. Nicotinamide, an active form of Vitamin B3 and a critical component of the human body's defense system has been shown to prevent certain cancers including nonmelanoma skin cancers. However, the mechanism of nicotinamide's protective effects is not well understood. Here, we investigated potential protective effects and mechanism of nicotinamide against UVA- and/or UVB- induced damage in normal human epidermal melanocytes. Our data demonstrated an appreciable protective effect of nicotinamide against UVA- and/or UVB- induced DNA damage in melanocytes by decreasing both cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanine levels. We found that the photoprotective response of nicotinamide was associated with activation of nucleotide excision repair and NRF2. Further studies are needed to validate our findings in in vivo models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The Effect of Sea Buckthorn ( L.) Seed Oil on UV-Induced Changes in Lipid Metabolism of Human Skin Cells
Lipids and proteins of skin cells are the most exposed to harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation contained in sunlight. There is a growing need for natural compounds that will protect these sensitive molecules from damage, without harmful side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sea buckthorn seed oil on the redox balance and lipid metabolism in UV irradiated cells formed different skin layers to examine whether it had a protective effect. Human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were subjected to UVA (ultraviolet type A; 30 J/cm² and 20 J/cm²) or UVB (ultraviolet type B; 60 mJ/cm² and 200 mJ/cm², respectively) radiation and treated with sea buckthorn seed oil (500 ng/mL), and the redox activity was estimated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and enzymatic/non-enzymatic antioxidants activity/level (using electron spin resonance (ESR), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and spectrophotometry). Lipid metabolism was measured by the level of fatty acids, lipid peroxidation products, endocannabinoids and phospholipase A2 activity (GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry), LC/MS (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry), and spectrophotometry). Also, transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear erythroid 2-related factor) and its activators/inhibitors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and cannabinoid receptor levels were measured (Western blot). Sea buckthorn oil partially prevents UV-induced ROS generation and enhances the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH), thioredoxin (Trx) and vitamins E and A. Moreover, it stimulates the activity of Nrf2 leading to enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity. As a result, decreases in lipid peroxidation products (4-hydroxynonenal, 8-isoprostaglandin) and increases in the endocannabinoid receptor levels were observed. Moreover, sea buckthorn oil treatment enhanced the level of phospholipid and free fatty acids, while simultaneously decreasing the cannabinoid receptor expression in UV irradiated keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The main differences in sea buckthorn oil on various skin cell types was observed in the case of PPARs-in keratinocytes following UV radiation PPAR expression was decreased by sea buckthorn oil treatment, while in fibroblasts the reverse effect was observed, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect. With these results, sea buckthorn seed oil exhibited prevention of UV-induced disturbances in redox balance as well as lipid metabolism in skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, which indicates it is a promising natural compound in skin photo-protection.
Effects of Antioxidants in Reducing Accumulation of Fat in Hepatocyte
The progress of the hepatic steatosis (HS), a clinicopathological status, is influenced by cellular oxidative stress, lipogenesis, fatty acid (FA) oxidation, and inflammatory responses. Because antioxidants are gaining attention as potent preventive agents for HS, we aimed to investigate anti-lipogenic effects of the antioxidants vitamin C (VC), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and astaxanthin (ATX) using hepatocytes. For this, we established an in vitro model using 1 mM oleic acid (OA) and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells; 10 μM antioxidants were evaluated for their ability to reduce fat accumulation in hepatocytes. Our results showed that all three antioxidants were effective to reduce fat accumulation for the molecular targets such as reduction in lipid droplets, triglyceride (TG) concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cell apoptosis, as well as in gene expressions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related effectors, lipogenesis, and inflammatory cytokines. There were simultaneous increases in diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, cell survival, AMPK phosphorylation, NRF2-related gene expression for cellular defense, and FA β-oxidation. However, among these, ATX more effectively inhibited ER stress and lipogenesis at the intracellular level than VC or NAC. Consequently, ATX was also more effective in inhibiting cell death, lipotoxicity, and inflammation. Our result emphasizes that ATX achieved greater lipotoxicity reduction than VC and NAC.
Vitamin E alleviates phoxim-induced toxic effects on intestinal oxidative stress, barrier function, and morphological changes in rats
Phoxim is an organic phosphorus pesticide that remains easily in the environment, such as human food and animal feed. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of vitamin E on phoxim-induced oxidative stress in the intestinal tissues of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a control group and three treatment groups: treatment group 1 (phoxim: 20 mg/kg·BW), treatment group 2 (phoxim: 180 mg/kg·BW), and treatment 3 (vitamin E + phoxim: 200 mg/kg·BW + 180 mg/kg·BW). Phoxim was given by gavage administration once a day for 28 days. The results showed that phoxim significantly reduced jejunum villus height in rats (P < 0.05), and decreased the mRNA expression of junction protein genes of rats, including Occlidin and Claudin-4 (P < 0.05). Phoxim reduced GSH content and T-AOC level in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of oxidative stress-related genes (Nrf2 and GPx2) were decreased. The mRNA expression of SOD was significantly increased. In addition, phoxim increased the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in jejunum mucosa and significantly reduced the level of IL-8 in ileum mucosas, while significantly increased TNF-α secretion. The mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were significantly decreased, and mRNA expression of TNF-α was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Phoxim also increased the DNA expression of total cecal bacteria and Escherichia coli, inhibited the DNA expression of Lactobacillus and destroyed the intestinal barrier. Two hundred milligrams per kilogram BW vitamin E reduced the effect of phoxim on intestinal structure, alleviated the oxidative stress in intestinal tissue, and decreased the level of TNF-α. The mRNA expressions of antioxidative stress genes (SOD and GPx2) were significantly increased. The DNA expression level of Lactobacillus was significantly increased. In conclusion, vitamin E helped reduce the toxicity of organophosphate pesticides, such as phoxim on rat intestinal tissue.
Oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling are involved in LPS induced pulmonary dysplasia in chick embryos
Inflammation or dysbacteriosis-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS) adversely influence the embryonic development of respiratory system. However, the precise pathological mechanisms still remain to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that LPS exposure caused lung maldevelopment in chick embryos, including higher embryo mortality, increased thickness of alveolar gas exchange zone, and accumulation of PAS immature pulmonary cells, accompanied with reduced expression of alveolar epithelial cell markers and lamellar body count. Upon LPS exposure, pulmonary cell proliferation was significantly altered and cell apoptosis was inhibited as well, indicating a delayed progress of pulmonary development. LPS treatment also resulted in reduced CAV-1 expression and up-regulation of Collagen I, suggesting increased lung fibrosis, which was verified by Masson staining. Moreover, LPS induced enhanced Nrf2 expression in E18 lungs, and the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was confirmed in MLE-12 cells in vitro. Antioxidant vitamin C restored the LPS induced down-regulation of ABCA3, SP-C and GATA-6 in MLE-12 cells. Furthermore, LPS induced activation of NF-κB signaling in MLE-12 cells, and the LPS-induced decrease in SP-C expression was partially abrogated by blocking NF-κB signaling with Bay-11-7082. Bay-11-7082 also inhibited LPS-induced increases of ROS and Nrf2 expression. Taken together, we have demonstrated that oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling are involved in LPS induced disruption of pulmonary cell development in chick embryos.
Ergosterol Attenuates LPS-Induced Myocardial Injury by Modulating Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Rats
Ergosterol (ER) is the primary sterol found in fungi and is named after the ergot fungus. A variety of pharmacological activities have been reported for ER, including antioxidative, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects, although its role in sepsis remains unclear.
Targeting Nrf2 to Suppress Ferroptosis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neurodegeneration
Ferroptosis is a newly described form of regulated cell death, distinct from apoptosis, necroptosis and other forms of cell death. Ferroptosis is induced by disruption of glutathione synthesis or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4, exacerbated by iron, and prevented by radical scavengers such as ferrostatin-1, liproxstatin-1, and endogenous vitamin E. Ferroptosis terminates with mitochondrial dysfunction and toxic lipid peroxidation. Although conclusive identification of ferroptosis is challenging, several salient and very well established features of neurodegenerative diseases are consistent with ferroptosis, including lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial disruption and iron dysregulation. Accordingly, interest in the role of ferroptosis in neurodegeneration is escalating and specific evidence is rapidly emerging. One aspect that has thus far received little attention is the antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). This transcription factor regulates hundreds of genes, of which many are either directly or indirectly involved in modulating ferroptosis, including metabolism of glutathione, iron and lipids, and mitochondrial function. This potentially positions Nrf2 as a key deterministic component modulating the onset and outcomes of ferroptotic stress. The minimal direct evidence currently available is consistent with this and indicates that Nrf2 may be critical for protection against ferroptosis. In contrast, abundant evidence demonstrates that enhancing Nrf2 signaling is potently neuroprotective in models of neurodegeneration, although the exact mechanism by which this is achieved is unclear. Further studies are required to determine to extent to which the neuroprotective effects of Nrf2 activation involve the prevention of ferroptosis.
Antifatigue Potential Activity of in Acute Excise-Treated and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Mice via Regulation of Nrf2-Mediated Oxidative Stress
(SI), a precious edible fungus, contains 35.22% of total sugar, 18.33% of total protein, 24 types of fatty acid, 16 types of amino acid, and 8 types of minerals. Encouragingly, it is rich in potential antioxidants such as total polyphenols (0.41%), total sterols (3.16%), and vitamins (0.44%). In the present study, the antifatigue properties of SI and its potential mechanisms of action were explored by the experiments on acute excise-treated mice and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) mice. SI (0.25, 0.5, and 1 g/kg) significantly enhanced exercise tolerance in the weight-loaded forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test (RRT) and reduced the immobility in the tail suspension test on CFS mice. SI markedly increased the levels of glycogen in the liver and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the liver and muscle and decreased the lactic acid (LD) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) content in both acute swimming-treated mice and CFS mice. SI improved the endogenous cellular antioxidant enzyme contents in the two mouse models by improving the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum, liver, and muscle, respectively. In CFS mice, the enhanced expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), SOD1, SOD2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and catalase (CAT) in the liver were observed after a 32-day SI administration. Our data indicated that SI possessed antifatigue activity, which may be related to its ability to normalize energy metabolism and Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress. Consequently, SI can be expected to serve as a novel natural antifatigue supplement in health foods.
The Antidiabetic and Antinephritic Activities of via Modulation of Nrf2-Mediated Oxidative Stress in the db/db Mouse
(TM), a valuable edible fungus, contains 19 types of fatty acid, 17 types of amino acid, 6 vitamins, and 7 minerals. The antidiabetic and antinephritic effects of TM and the underlying mechanisms related to oxidative stress were investigated in db/db mice. Eight-week oral administration of metformin (Met) at 0.1 g/kg and TM at doses of 0.2 and 0.4 g/kg decreased body weight, plasma glucose, serum levels of glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride, and total cholesterol and increased serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the mice, suggesting hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. TM promoted glucose metabolism by increasing the levels of pyruvate kinase and hepatic glycogen. It also regulated the levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative enzymes in serum and/or the kidneys of the mice. Additionally, TM increased the expression of nuclear respiratory factor 2 (Nrf2), catalase, heme oxygenase 1, heme oxygenase 2, and manganese superoxide dismutase 2 and decreased the expression of protein kinase C alpha, phosphor-janus kinase 2, phosphor-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and phosphor-nuclear factor-B in the kidneys. The results of this study reveal the antidiabetic and antidiabetic nephritic properties of TM via modulating oxidative stress and inflammation-related cytokines through improving the Nrf2 signaling pathway.