n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids induce acute myeloid leukemia cell death associated with mitochondrial glycolytic switch and Nrf2 pathway activation
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) remains a therapeutic challenge and improvements in chemotherapy are needed. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), present in fish oil (FO) at high concentrations, have antitumoral properties in various cancer models. We investigated the effects of two n-3 PUFAs, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in AML cell lines and primary AML blasts. EPA and DHA induced a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability in five AML cell lines, which was also observed with FO, but not SO (devoid of n-3 PUFAs) in cell lines and primary leucoblasts. Mitochondrial energy metabolism shifted from oxidative respiration to glycolytic metabolism in the U937, MOLM-13, and HL-60 cell lines. This phenomenon was associated with major disorganization of the mitochondrial network and mitochondrial swelling. Transcriptomic analysis after 6 h and 24 h of exposure to FO revealed a Nrf2 activation signature, which was confirmed by evidence of Nrf2 nuclear translocation in response to oxidative stress, but insufficient to prevent cell death following prolonged exposure. Apoptosis studies showed consistent phosphatidylserine exposition among the AML cell lines tested and a reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. The cell-killing effect of FO was additive with that of cytarabine (AraC), by the Chou and Talalay method, and this combination effect could be reproduced in primary AML blasts. Altogether, our results show deleterious effects of n-3 PUFAs on mitochondrial metabolism of AML cells, associated with oxidative stress and Nrf2 response, leading to cell death. These observations support further investigation of n-3 PUFA addition to standard chemotherapy in AML.
Dietary Vitamin E Status Dictates Oxidative Stress Outcomes by Modulating Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation in Alzheimer Disease Model APP/PS1 Mice
Quite a number of studies have examined the effects of fish oil supplementation on cognitive performance in different transgenic animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, inconsistent and controversial outcomes have been derived from these experiments. In order to investigate whether the beneficial effect of fish oil supplementation on cognition was dietary VE status associated, fish oil dietary intervention was carried out in transgenic APP/PS1 (APP/PS1) mice. Control mice (C57BL/6J mice) were fed a normal control diet. APP/PS1 mice were assigned to a normal control diet group and low VE diet + fish oil supplement, normal VE diet + fish oil supplement, and high VE diet + fish oil supplement groups, respectively. After 7 months of dietary intervention, we found that fish oil supplementation improved behavioral performance, alleviated brain beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque burden, and attenuated the oxidative stress in APP/PS1 mice by increasing cortical GSH content and total antioxidant capacity, as well as by decreasing MDA level. Fish oil treatment increased cortical n-3 PUFA concentration and decreased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in APP/PS1 mice. Fatty acid transporters, Nrf2 and downstream targets involved in cortical and hippocampal antioxidant system were also modulated by fish oil-supplemented diet. Our data demonstrate that fish oil supplementation exerts an enhanced modulatory effect on the antioxidant system and fatty acid concentrations in APP/PS1 mice fed on lowly or averagely concentrated level of VE-containing diet than in mice fed with VE-rich diet. The current data do support previous findings that already dictate the beneficial effect of n-3 PUFAs on cognitive function. Moreover, the cognition promoting effects of n-3 PUFAs may be dietary VE status related.
Supplementation with Docosahexaenoic Acid and Extra Virgin Olive Oil Prevents Liver Steatosis Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Mice through PPAR-α and Nrf2 Upregulation with Concomitant SREBP-1c and NF-kB Downregulation
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of liver disease, for which there is no validated drug therapy at present time. In this respect, the PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) modulate lipid metabolism in the liver, and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has hepatoprotective effects.
Docosahexaenoic acid counteracts palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in C2C12 myotubes: Impact on muscle atrophy
Lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle results in dysregulation of protein metabolism and muscle atrophy. We previously reported that treating C2C12 myotubes with palmitate (PA), a saturated fatty acid, increases the overall rate of proteolysis via activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy systems; co-treatment with the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) prevents the PA-induced responses. Others have reported that PA induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a collective group of responses that can lead to activation of caspase-mediated proteolysis and autophagy. Presently, we tested the hypothesis that DHA protects against PA-induced ER stress/UPR and its atrophy-related responses in muscle cells. C2C12 myotubes were treated with 500 mol/L PA and/or 100 mol/L DHA for 24 h. Proteins and mRNA associated with ER stress/UPR, autophagy, and caspase-3 activation were evaluated. PA robustly increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase R (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2). It also increased the mRNAs encoding activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and autophagy-related 5 (Atg5) as well as the protein levels of the PERK target nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), CHOP, and cleaved (i.e., activated) caspase-3. Co-treatment with DHA prevented all of the PA-induced responses. Our results indicate that DHA prevents PA-induced muscle cell atrophy, in part, by preventing ER stress/UPR, a process that leads to activation of caspase-mediated proteolysis and an increase in expression of autophagy-related genes.
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improve the antioxidative defense in rat astrocytes via an Nrf2-dependent mechanism
Neuronal tolerance to hypoxia and nutrient defficiency highly depends on GSH levels and antioxidant enzyme activity in astrocytes. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFA) enhance antioxidant defence in different cells. The aim of present study was to investigate if ω-3PUFA improve antioxidant status in astrocytes.
Docosahexaenoic acid increases the expression of oxidative stress-induced growth inhibitor 1 through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway in breast cancer cells
Oxidative stress-induced growth inhibitor 1 (OSGIN1), a tumor suppressor, inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death. N-6 and n-3 PUFAs protect against breast cancer, but the molecular mechanisms of this effect are not clear. We investigated the effect of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs on OSGIN1 expression and whether OSGIN1 is involved in PUFA-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. We used 100 μM of n-6 PUFAs including arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, and gamma-linolenic acid and n-3 PUFAs including alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Only DHA significantly induced OSGIN1 protein and mRNA expression. DHA triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, suppressed DHA-induced OSGIN1 protein expression and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. Nrf2 knockdown attenuated DHA-induced OSGIN1 expression. N-Acetyl-l-cysteine, a ROS scavenger, abrogated the DHA-induced increases in Akt phosphorylation, Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, and OSGIN1 expression. DHA induced the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, mitochondrial accumulation of OSGIN1 and p53, and cytochrome c release; knockdown of OSGIN1 diminished these effects. In conclusion, induction of OSGIN1 by DHA is at least partially associated with increased ROS production, which activates PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling. Induction of OSGIN1 may be involved in DHA-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.
N-3 PUFAs induce inflammatory tolerance by formation of KEAP1-containing SQSTM1/p62-bodies and activation of NFE2L2
Inflammation is crucial in the defense against infections but must be tightly controlled to limit detrimental hyperactivation. Our diet influences inflammatory processes and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have known anti-inflammatory effects. The balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory processes is coordinated by macrophages and macroautophagy/autophagy has recently emerged as a cellular process that dampens inflammation. Here we report that the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) transiently induces cytosolic speckles of the autophagic receptor SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) (described as SQSTM1/p62-bodies) in macrophages. We suggest that the formation of SQSTM1/p62-bodies represents a fast mechanism of NFE2L2/Nrf2 (nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2) activation by recruitment of KEAP1 (kelch like ECH associated protein 1). Further, the autophagy receptor TAX1BP1 (Tax1 binding protein 1) and ubiquitin-editing enzyme TNFAIP3/A20 (TNF α induced protein 3) could be identified in DHA-induced SQSTM1/p62-bodies. Simultaneously, DHA strongly dampened the induction of pro-inflammatory genes including CXCL10 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10) and we suggest that formation of SQSTM1/p62-bodies and activation of NFE2L2 leads to tolerance towards selective inflammatory stimuli. Finally, reduced CXCL10 levels were related to the improved clinical outcome in n-3 PUFA-supplemented heart-transplant patients and we propose CXCL10 as a robust marker for the clinical benefits mobilized by n-3 PUFA supplementation.
Intravitreal injection of docosahexaenoic acid attenuated photoreceptor cell injury in a NaIO-induced age-related macular degeneration rat model
In most studies, the major supplement docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is administered orally or intraperitoneally. In this study, we proposed to assess the safety and efficacy of the intravitreal injection of DHA in an age-related macular degeneration (AMD) rat model. Different concentrations of DHA were injected into the vitreous body. Histopathology and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis showed that there was no difference in thickness, observable structure, or apoptosis among the untreated, normal saline, and DHA groups (0.2, 1.0, 5.0 and 10μg). However, GFAP expression was increased in the 10μg group. To investigate whether intravitreal injection of DHA could protect photoreceptors, we developed a NaIO-induced retinal damage model in adult rats. Decreases in deformation and thickness were observed in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) after NaIO administration but were improved with DHA injection. The NaIO group showed a substantial reduction in the number of nuclei in ONL, whereas the DHA group showed an increase. Additionally, significant increases in SOD activity and Nrf2 expression were observed after DHA injection; GFAP and NF-κB expression levels were markedly decreased by DHA injection. Moreover, Western blotting showed that Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and CHOP were notably increased in the NaIO group but were significantly decreased by DHA injection. Collectively, intravitreal injection of DHA is safe and effective in select doses in a NaIO-induced AMD rat model. The current results suggest that intravitreal injection of DHA may be a new avenue for the treatment of AMD.
Constitutive ω-3 fatty acid production in fat-1 transgenic mice and docosahexaenoic acid administration to wild type mice protect against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis
Omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to have strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs on experimentally induced murine colitis. Intrarectal administration of 2.5% 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) caused inflammation in the colon of wild type mice, but this was less severe in fat-1 transgenic mice that constitutively produce ω-3 PUFAs from ω-6 PUFAs. The intraperitoneal administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a representative ω-3 PUFA, was also protective against TNBS-induced murine colitis. In addition, endogenously formed and exogenously introduced ω-3 PUFAs attenuated the production of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in the colon of TNBS-treated mice. The effective protection against inflammatory and oxidative colonic tissue damages in fat-1 and DHA-treated mice was associated with suppression of NF-κB activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression and with elevated activation of Nrf2 and upregulation of its target gene, heme oxygenase-1. Taken together, these results provide mechanistic basis of protective action of ω-3 fatty PUFAs against experimental colitis.
Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Expression of Heme Oxygenase-1 and NAD(P)H:quinone Oxidoreductase through Activation of Nrf2 in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω-3 fatty acid abundant in fish oils, has diverse health beneficial effects, such as anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and chemopreventive activities. In this study, we found that DHA induced expression of two representative antioxidant/cytoprotective enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), in human mammary epithealial (MCF-10A) cells. DHA-induced upregulation of these enzymes was accompanied by enhanced translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 into the nucleus and its binding to antioxidant response element. Nrf2 gene silencing by siRNA abolished the DHA-induced expression of HO-1 and NQO1 proteins. When MCF-10A cells were transfected with mutant constructs in which the cysteine 151 or 288 residue of Keap1 was replaced by serine, DHA-induced expression of HO-1 and NQO1 was markedly reduced. Moreover, DHA activated protein kinase C (PKC)δ and induced Nrf2 phosphorylation. DHA-induced phosphorylation of Nrf2 was abrogated by the pharmacological PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin or siRNA knockdown of its gene expression. The antioxidants -acetyl-l-cysteine and Trolox attenuated DHA-induced activation of PKCδ, phosphorylation of Nrf2, and and its target protein expression. In conclusion, DHA activates Nrf2, possibly through modification of critical Keap1 cysteine 288 residue and PKCδ-mediated phosphorylation of Nrf2, leading to upregulation of HO-1 and NQO1 expression.
Docosahexaenoic acid regulates vascular endothelial cell function and prevents cardiovascular disease
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is present in high concentrations in salmon, herring, and trout. Epidemiologic studies have shown that high dietary consumption of these and other oily fish is associated with reduced rates of myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and other ischemic pathologies. Atherosclerosis is induced by inflammation and can lead to acute cardiovascular events and extensive plaque. DHA inhibits the development of inflammation in endothelial cells, alters the function and regulation of vascular biomarkers, and reduces cardiovascular risk. It also affects vascular relaxation and constriction by controlling nitric oxide and endothelin 1 production in endothelial cells. DHA also contributes to the prevention of arteriosclerosis by regulating the expression of oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, thromboxane A2 receptor, and adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in endothelial cells. Recent research showed that DHA reduces the increase in adhesion factor expression induced by lipopolysaccharide by suppressing toll-like receptor 4. A new mechanism of action of DHA has been described that is mediated through endothelial free fatty acid receptor 4, associated with heme oxygenase 1 induction by Nrf2. However, the efficacy and mechanisms of action of DHA in cardiovascular disease prevention are not yet completely understood. The aim of this paper was to review the effects of DHA on vascular endothelial cells and recent findings on their potential for the prevention of circulatory diseases.
Docosahexaenoic acid and disulfiram act in concert to kill cancer cells: a mutual enhancement of their anticancer actions
We previously reported a synergistic anticancer action of clioquinol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in human cancer cells. However, clioquinol has been banned from the clinic due to its neurotoxicity. This study identified disulfiram (DSF) as a substitute compound to clioquinol, acting in concert with DHA to more effectively kill cancer cells and suppress tumor growth. Treatment with DSF and DHA induced greater apoptotic cell death and suppression of tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, as compared to DSF and DHA used alone. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that DSF enhances DHA-induced cellular oxidative stress as evidenced by up-regulation of Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) gene transcription. On the other hand, DHA was found to enhance DSF-induced suppression of mammosphere formation and stem cell frequency in a selected cancer model system, indicating that alterations to cancer cell stemness are involved in the combinatory anticancer action of DSF and DHA. Thus, DHA and DSF, both clinically approved drugs, act in concert to more effectively kill cancer cells. This combinatory action involves an enhancement of cellular oxidative stress and suppression of cancer cell stemness.
Arachidonic acid and lipoxinA4 attenuate streptozotocin-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5 F cells in vitro and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in vivo
The aim of this study was to observe whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can protect rat insulinoma (RIN5 F) cells against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced apoptosis in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM) in vivo and if so, what would be the mechanism of this action.
Docosahexaenoyl serotonin, an endogenously formed n-3 fatty acid-serotonin conjugate has anti-inflammatory properties by attenuating IL-23-IL-17 signaling in macrophages
Conjugates of fatty acids and amines, including endocannabinoids, are known to play important roles as endogenous signaling molecules. Among these, the ethanolamine conjugate of the n-3 poly unsaturated long chain fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (DHA) was shown to possess strong anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, we identified the serotonin conjugate of DHA, docosahexaenoyl serotonin (DHA-5-HT), in intestinal tissues and showed that its levels are markedly influenced by intake of n-3 PUFAs. However, its biological roles remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that DHA-5-HT possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties by attenuating the IL-23-IL-17 signaling cascade in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Transcriptome analysis revealed that DHA-5-HT down-regulates LPS-induced genes, particularly those involved in generating a CD4+ Th17 response. Hence, levels of PGE2, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-23, all pivotal macrophage-produced mediators driving the activation of pathogenic Th17 cells in a concerted way, were found to be significantly suppressed by concentrations as low as 100-500nM DHA-5-HT. Furthermore, DHA-5-HT inhibited the ability of RAW264.7 cells to migrate and downregulated chemokines like MCP-1, CCL-20, and gene-expression of CCL-22 and of several metalloproteinases. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) suggested negative overlap with gene sets linked to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and positive overlap with gene sets related to the Nrf2 pathway. The specific formation of DHA-5-HT in the gut, combined with increasing data underlining the importance of the IL-23-IL-17 signaling pathway in the etiology of many chronic inflammatory diseases merits further investigation into its potential as therapeutic compound in e.g. IBD or intestinal tumorigenesis.
Fish oil omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuate oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in vascular endothelial cells
Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), likely prevent cardiovascular disease, however their mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, the role of DNA damage in atherogenesis has been receiving considerable attention. Here, we investigated the effects of EPA and DHA on DNA damage in vascular endothelial cells to clarify their antiatherogenic mechanisms.