Novel approaches in the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy
Withaferin-A attenuates multiple low doses of Streptozotocin (MLD-STZ) induced type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the major metabolic disorders with life-long dependence on insulin. The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-diabetic potential of Withaferin A (WA), the active constituent of Withania somnifera in multiple low doses of Streptozotocin (MLD-STZ) induced T1DM. STZ (40 mg/Kg) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 5 consecutive days to male Swiss albino mice to induce T1DM. Mice were concurrently treated with WA (2 & 10 mg/Kg). Blood glucose levels, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, oxidative stress parameters were estimated biochemically (MDA, GSH) and immunohistochemically (Nrf2, NFκB). In addition, inflammatory cytokines, and insulin levels were quantified by ELISA method. Apoptosis was assessed by immunohistochemical staining for cleaved-caspase-3 and TUNEL assay. WA treatment significantly reduced the blood glucose levels and improved glucose clearance. Strikingly, we observed a significant reduction in the incidence of diabetes upon WA treatment and only 2 out of 8 (2/8 = 25%) animals were diabetic. WA ameliorated the MLD-STZ induced oxidative and nitrosative stress. Furthermore, WA exhibited promising anti-inflammatory effect as evident from reduction in the levels of IL-6 (p < 0.05) and TNF-α (p < 0.05) compared to diabetic mice. In addition, insulitis scoring and IHC for Nrf2 and NFκB indicated promising anti-diabetic effect. WA reduced MLD-STZ induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis, further supporting the observed protective effect. We, to the best of our knowledge, report for the first time that WA can effectively combat MLD-STZ induced T1DM via modulation of Nrf2/NFκB signaling and holds substantial potential for therapy of T1DM.
Lipoic Acid Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Goto Kakizaki Rats by Reducing Oxidative Stress Through Nrf2 Activation
Prevention of hepatic fat accumulation may be an important approach for liver diseases due to the increased relevance of hepatic steatosis in this field. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the antioxidant α-lipoic acid (α-LA) on hepatic steatosis, hepatocellular function, and oxidative stress in a model of type 2 diabetes fed with a high fat diet (HFD). Goto-Kakizaki rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group received only a standard rat diet (control GK) including groups 2 (HFD), 3 (vehicle group), and 4 (α-LA group), which were given HFD, ad libitum during three months. Wistar rats are the non-diabetic control group. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, liver function, plasma and liver tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), liver GSH, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor E2 (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor-2 (Nrf2) levels were assessed in the different groups. Liver function was assessed using quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy, serum aspartate, and alanine aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, and bilirubin levels. Histopathologically steatosis and fibrosis were evaluated. Type 2 diabetic animals fed with HFD showed a marked hepatic steatosis and a diminished hepatic extraction fraction and both were fully prevented with α-LA. Plasma and liver tissue MDA and hepatic TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the HFD group when compared with the control group and significantly lower in the α-LA group. Systemic and hepatic cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum uric acid levels were higher in hyperlipidemic GK rats and fully prevented with α-LA. In addition, nuclear Nrf2 activity was significantly diminished in GK rats and significantly augmented after α-LA treatment. In conclusion, α-LA strikingly ameliorates steatosis in this animal model of diabetes fed with HFD by decrementing the inflammatory marker TNF-α and reducing oxidative stress. α-LA might be considered a useful therapeutic tool to prevent hepatic steatosis by incrementing antioxidant defense systems through Nrf2 and consequently decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation in type 2 diabetes.
Role of Methylglyoxal in Diabetic Cardiovascular and Kidney Diseases: Insights from Basic Science for Application into Clinical Practice
The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus are increasing globally at alarming rates. Cardiovascular and renal complications are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Methylglyoxal (MG) - a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound - is increased in patients with diabetes and has been implicated to play a detrimental role in the etiology of cardiovascular and renal complications. Derived from glucose, MG binds to arginine and lysine residues in proteins, and the resultant end products serve as surrogate markers of MG generation in vivo. Under normal conditions, MG is detoxified by the enzyme glyoxalase 1 (Glo1), using reduced glutathione as a co-factor. Elevated levels of MG is known to cause endothelial and vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress and atherosclerosis; all of which are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, MG has also been shown to cause pathologic structural alterations and impair kidney function. Conversely, MG scavengers (such as N-acetylcysteine, aminoguanidine or metformin) or Nrf2/Glo1 activators (such as trans-resveratrol / hesperetin) are shown to be useful in preventing MG-induced cardiovascular and renal complications in diabetes. However, clinical evidence supporting the MG lowering properties of these agents are limited and hence, need further investigation.
The autophagy receptor SQSTM1/p62 mediates anti-inflammatory actions of the selective NR3C1/glucocorticoid receptor modulator compound A (CpdA) in macrophages
Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat inflammatory disorders; however, prolonged use of glucocorticoids results in side effects including osteoporosis, diabetes and obesity. Compound A (CpdA), identified as a selective NR3C1/glucocorticoid receptor (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) modulator, exhibits an inflammation-suppressive effect, largely in the absence of detrimental side effects. To understand the mechanistic differences between the classic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) and CpdA, we looked for proteins oppositely regulated in bone marrow-derived macrophages using an unbiased proteomics approach. We found that the autophagy receptor SQSTM1 but not NR3C1 mediates the anti-inflammatory action of CpdA. CpdA drives SQSTM1 upregulation by recruiting the NFE2L2 transcription factor to its promoter. In contrast, the classic NR3C1 ligand dexamethasone recruits NR3C1 to the Sqstm1 promoter and other NFE2L2-controlled gene promoters, resulting in gene downregulation. Both DEX and CpdA induce autophagy, with marked different autophagy characteristics and morphology. Suppression of LPS-induced Il6 and Ccl2 genes by CpdA in macrophages is hampered upon Sqstm1 silencing, confirming that SQSTM1 is essential for the anti-inflammatory capacity of CpdA, at least in this cell type. Together, these results demonstrate how off-target mechanisms of selective NR3C1 ligands may contribute to a more efficient anti-inflammatory therapy.
Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Exert Antioxidant Effects Through the Nrf2 Pathway in the Immortalized Mouse Schwann IMS32 Cells
Recent studies advocate that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) have direct antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in the vasculature; however, the role of ω-3 PUFAs in Schwann cells remains undetermined.
Pas Kinase Deficiency Triggers Antioxidant Mechanisms in the Liver
Metabolic dysfunction in the liver is the cause of numerous pathologies, which are associated with an altered redox state. PASK (PAS Domain Kinase) is a nutrient and bioenergetic sensor. We contend that PASK could act as an oxidative stress sensor in liver and/or control the metabolic balance, playing a role in the mitochondrial homeostasis. Using PASK-deficient mice, we observed that PASK deficiency promotes antioxidant response mechanisms: a lower production of ROS/RNS under non-fasting conditions, overexpression of genes coding to ROS-detoxifying enzymes and mitochondrial fusion proteins (MnSod Gpx, Mfn1 and Opa1), coactivator Ppargc1a, transcription factors (Pparg and FoxO3a) and deacetylase Sirt1. Also, under fasting conditions, PASK deficiency induced the overexpression of Ppargc1a, Ppara, Pparg, FoxO3a and Nrf2 leading to the overexpression of genes coding to antioxidant enzymes such as MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, GPx, HO1 and GCLm. Additionally, inducing PINK1 involved in cell survival and mitophagy. These changes kept ROS steady levels and improved the regenerative state. We suggest a new role for PASK as a controller of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dynamics in the liver. In fact, antioxidant response is PASK dependent. PASK-targeting could therefore be a good way of reducing the oxidative stress in order to prevent or treat liver diseases.
Ameliorates Diabetes-Induced Renal Damage by Suppressing Advanced Glycation End Products in db/db Mice
(SS) is a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia to treat anemia, menoxenia and rheumatism. However, its effect of diabetes-induced renal damage and mechanisms of action against advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effects of SS on diabetes-induced renal damage and explored the possible underlying mechanisms using db/db type 2 diabetes mice. db/db mice were administered SS extract (50 mg/kg) orally for 6 weeks. SS-treated group did not change body weight, blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. However, SS treatment reversed diabetes-induced dyslipidemia and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio in db/db mice. Moreover, SS administration showed significantly increased protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is a transcription factor for antioxidant enzyme. SS significantly upregulated glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) and NADPH quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) expression but reduced CML accumulation and downregulated receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Furthermore, SS showed significant decrease of periodic acid⁻Schiff (PAS)-positive staining and AGEs accumulation in histological and immunohistochemical analyses of kidney tissues. Taken together, we concluded that SS ameliorated the renal damage by inhibiting diabetes-induced glucotoxicity, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress, through the Nrf2/antioxidant responsive element (ARE) stress-response system.
Association between glucose-lowering treatment and cancer metastasis among patients with preexisting type 2 diabetes and incident malignancy
Preclinical data suggested that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors may promote metastatic progression of preexisting cancer via nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (NRF2) activation. We aimed to investigate the association between different glucose-lowering treatments, including DPP-4 inhibitors and metformin, both with potential NRF2 modulating effects, and new-onset metastatic cancer among type 2 diabetes patients with comorbid incident cancer. This population-based cohort study included 223,530 diabetic patients newly diagnosed with primary cancer during 2009-2011 in Korea. The patients were categorized into five study cohorts in accordance with treatment modalities during the follow-up until the end of 2016: no-antidiabetic drugs (no-AD), metformin, DPP-4 inhibitors, metformin+DPP-4 inhibitors, and insulin treatment. Following propensity score (PS) matching in a 1:1 ratio against the no-AD group, 18,805 patients in metformin, 1,865 in DPP-4 inhibitors, 31,074 in metformin+DPP-4 inhibitors, and 1,895 patients in insulin groups were identified for cohort entry and analyzed against the corresponding number of no-AD patients in each PS-matched comparison pair. Metastatic risk was lower with metformin plus or minus DPP-4 inhibitors (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79-0.90 and 0.87, 0.80-0.95, respectively), not significantly associated with DPP-4 inhibitors (0.99, 0.77-1.29) except after thyroid cancer (3.89, 1.01-9.64), and higher with insulin therapy (1.81, 1.46-2.24) compared with no-AD use for all cancers combined. In conclusion, DPP-4 inhibitor therapy was not associated with significant risk of cancer metastasis relative to no-AD therapy, irrespective of patient age and sex, except after thyroid cancer, while metastatic risk was decreased with metformin treatment among type 2 diabetes patients with preexisting cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Upregulation of Nrf2 and Decreased Redox Signaling Contribute to Renoprotective Effects of Chemerin Receptor Blockade in Diabetic Mice
Chemerin, acting through its receptor ChemR23, is an adipokine associated with inflammatory response, glucose and lipid metabolism and vascular function. Although this adipokine has been associated with the development and progression of kidney disease, it is not clear whether the chemerin/ChemR23 system plays a role in renal function in the context of diabetes. Therefore, we sought to determine whether ChemR23 receptor blockade prevents the development and/or progression of diabetic nephropathy and questioned the role of oxidative stress and Nrf2 in this process. Renal redox state and function were assessed in non-diabetic lean db/m and diabetic obese db/db mice treated with vehicle or CCX832 (ChemR23 antagonist). Renal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which was increased in diabetic mice, was attenuated by CCX832. This was associated with an increase in Nox 4 expression. Augmented protein oxidation in db/db mice was not observed when mice were treated with CCX832. also abrogated impaired Nrf2 nuclear activity and associated downregulation in antioxidants expression in kidneys from db/db mice. Our in vivo findings highlight the role of the redox signaling and Nrf2 system as renoprotective players during chemerin receptor blockade in diabetic mice. The chemerin/ChemR23 system may be an important target to limit renal dysfunction associated with obesity-related diabetes.
Nanoceria suppresses multiple low doses of streptozotocin-induced Type 1 diabetes by inhibition of Nrf2/NF-κB pathway and reduction of apoptosis
The present study was designed to probe the antidiabetic effects of nanoceria (NC) in Type 1 diabetes (T1DM).
Carnosic acid improves diabetic nephropathy by activating Nrf2/ARE and inhibition of NF-κB pathway
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), one of the most serious complications of diabetes, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality of end-stage renal disease. Our previous research found that carnosic acid (CA) or rosemary extract can effectively improve glucose and lipid metabolism disorder by inhibiting SREBPs.
Cinnamic aldehyde inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats
Atherosclerosis remains the number one cause of death and disability worldwide. Atherosclerosis is treated by revascularization procedures to restore blood flow to distal tissue, but these procedures often fail due to restenosis secondary to neointimal hyperplasia. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that accelerates both atherosclerosis development and onset of restenosis. Strategies to inhibit restenosis aim at reducing neointimal hyperplasia by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. Since increased production of reactive oxygen species promotes VSMC proliferation and migration, redox intervention to maintain vascular wall redox homeostasis holds the potential to inhibit arterial restenosis. Cinnamic aldehyde (CA) is an electrophilic Nrf2 activator that has shown therapeutic promise in diabetic rodent models. Nrf2 is a transcription factor that regulates the antioxidant response. Therefore, we hypothesized that CA would activate Nrf2 and would inhibit neointimal hyperplasia after carotid artery balloon injury in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat. In primary ZDF VSMC, CA inhibited cell growth by MTT with an EC of 118 ± 7 μM. At a therapeutic dose of 100 μM, CA inhibited proliferation of ZDF VSMC in vitro and reduced the proliferative index within the injured artery in vivo, as well as migration of ZDF VSMC in vitro. CA activated the Nrf2 pathway in both ZDF VSMC and injured carotid arteries while also increasing antioxidant defenses and reducing markers of redox dysfunction. Additionally, we noted a significant reduction of neutrophils (69%) and macrophages (78%) within the injured carotid arteries after CA treatment. Lastly, CA inhibited neointimal hyperplasia evidenced by a 53% reduction in the intima:media ratio and a 61% reduction in vessel occlusion compared to arteries treated with vehicle alone. Overall CA was capable of activating Nrf2, and inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia after balloon injury in a rat model of diabetic restenosis.
Nrf2 Activation Provides Atheroprotection in Diabetic Mice Through Concerted Upregulation of Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Autophagy Mechanisms
Interactive relationships between metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy in the vascular system play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiovascular disease. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a stress-sensitive guarantor of cellular homeostasis, which cytoprotective contributions extend beyond the antioxidant defense. We investigated the beneficial effects and underlying mechanisms of the Nrf2 inducer tert-butyl hydroquinone (tBHQ) on diabetes-driven atherosclerosis. In the experimental model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, treatment with tBHQ increased Nrf2 activity in macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells within atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, tBHQ significantly decreased the size, extension and lipid content of atheroma plaques, and attenuated inflammation by reducing lesional macrophages (total number and M1/M2 phenotype balance), foam cell size and chemokine expression. Atheroprotection was accompanied by both systemic and local antioxidant effects, characterized by lower levels of superoxide anion and oxidative DNA marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, reduced expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, and increased antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, tBHQ treatment upregulated the gene and protein expression of autophagy-related molecules and also enhanced autophagic flux in diabetic mouse aorta. , Nrf2 activation by tBHQ suppressed cytokine-induced expression of pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress genes, altered macrophage phenotypes, and promoted autophagic activity. Our results reinforce pharmacological Nrf2 activation as a promising atheroprotective approach in diabetes, according to the plethora of cytoprotective mechanisms involved in the resolution of inflammation and oxidative stress, and restoring autophagy.
Exogenous Pancreatic Kallikrein Improves Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes
To evaluate the protective effects of exogenous pancreatic kallikrein (PKK) treatment on diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) and explore the underlying mechanisms. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, a type 1 diabetic model, were treated with either PKK or saline for 12 weeks. Non-diabetic rats were used as controls. PKK administration attenuated the mitochondria swelling, Z line misalignments, myofibrosis and interstitial collagen accumulation in diabetic myocardial tissue. The oxidative stress imbalance including increased nitrotyrosine, decreased anti-oxidative components such as nuclear receptor nuclear factor like 2 (Nrf2), glutathione peroxidase 1(GPx-1), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were recovered in the heart of PKK-treated diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, protein expression of TGF-β1 and accumulation of collagen I in the heart tissues was decreased after PKK administration. Markers for inflammation were decreased in diabetic rats by PKK treatment. Compared to diabetic rats, PKK reversed the degradation of IκB-α, an inhibitive element of heterotrimer nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). The endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein and myocardial nitrate/nitrite were impaired in the heart of diabetic rats, which, however, were restored after PKK treatment. The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase 2 (SERCA2) and phospholamban (PLN) were mishandled in diabetic rats, while were rectified in PKK-treated diabetic rats. The plasma NT-proBNP level was increased in diabetic rats while was reduced with PKK treatment. PKK protects against DCM via reducing fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress, promoting nitric oxide production, as well as restoring the function of the calcium channel.