Diabetes aggravates renal ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats by exacerbating oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis
Diabetic patients are more susceptible to renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (RI/RI) and have a poor prognosis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine whether diabetes could worsen acute kidney injury induced by I/R in rats and clarify its mechanism. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were subjected to 45 min renal pedicle occlusion followed by 24 h reperfusion. Tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ, 16.7 mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally 3 times at intervals of 8 h before ischemia. Serum and kidneys were harvested after reperfusion to evaluate renal function and histological injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to test pro-inflammatory cytokines. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assays were used to detect apoptotic cells, and western blotting was performed to determine the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and cleaved caspase-3, as well as oxidative stress and inflammation-related proteins, such as nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Compared with control animals, diabetic rats undergoing I/R exhibited more severe tubular damage and renal dysfunction. Diabetes exacerbated oxidative stress, the inflammatory response, and apoptosis after renal I/R by enhancing TLR4/NF-κB signaling and blocking the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. RI/RI in diabetic rats was attenuated by pretreatment with TBHQ (a Nrf2 agonist), which exerted anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties by inhibiting NF-κB signaling. These findings indicate that hyperglycemia exacerbates RI/RI by intensifying oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Antioxidant pretreatment may alleviate RI/RI in diabetic patients.
Classification of drug molecules for oxidative stress signalling pathway
In humans, oxidative stress is involved in the development of diabetes, cancer, hypertension, Alzheimers' disease, and heart failure. One of the mechanisms in the cellular defence against oxidative stress is the activation of the Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) signalling pathway. Computation of activity, efficacy, and potency score of ARE signalling pathway and to propose a multi-level prediction scheme for the same is the main aim of the study as it contributes in a big amount to the improvement of oxidative stress in humans. Applying the process of knowledge discovery from data, required knowledge is gathered and then machine learning techniques are applied to propose a multi-level scheme. The validation of the proposed scheme is done using the K-fold cross-validation method and an accuracy of 90% is achieved for prediction of activity score for ARE molecules which determine their power to refine oxidative stress.
Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide alleviates inflammatory cytokines and promotes glucose uptake in high‑glucose‑ and high‑insulin‑induced 3T3‑L1 adipocytes by promoting Nrf2 expression
Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide (PSP) has been shown to alleviate hyperglycemia and reduce oxidative stress to delay the progression of diabetic retinopathy and cataracts. However, its role and underlying mechanisms in regulating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remain unclear. Nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation plays a protective role in T2DM. The present study focused on the effect of PSP on inflammatory cytokine secretion and Nrf2 expression in the adipocytes of T2DM patients. In this study, high‑glucose‑ and high‑insulin‑induced 3T3‑L1 adipocytes were used to mimic insulin‑resistant (IR)‑3T3‑L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, the effect and underlying mechanisms of PSP on inflammation and glucose uptake in IR‑3T3‑L1 adipocytes were investigated. The present study found that proliferation after 50, 100 and 250 µg/ml PSP treatment had no significant change in normal 3T3‑L1 adipocytes. A total of 50, 100 and 250 µg/ml of PSP also alleviated IL‑1β, IL‑6, and TNF‑α levels and promoted proliferation, glucose uptake, and glucose transporter 4 expression in IR‑3T3‑L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, 50, 100 and 250 µg/ml PSP promoted Nrf2 and HO‑1 expression. However, silencing Nrf2 expression reversed the effect of 100 µg/ml PSP in IR‑3T3‑L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, these results suggest that PSP alleviates inflammatory cytokines and promotes glucose uptake in IR‑3T3‑L1 adipocytes by promoting Nrf2 expression. PSP may be a potential therapeutic agent for T2DM treatment by promoting Nrf2 expression.
Efficacy of short-term intensive treatment with insulin pump to improve islet β-cell function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes via inhibition of oxidative stress
The present study (Chinese Trial Registry GTB7027) assessed the effects of short-term intensive treatment with insulin pump on islet cell function in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and the possible mechanism. A total of 100 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and hospitalized between January 2016 and December 2017 were divided into a control and an experimental group (n=50 in each group). The subjects of the control group were administered multiple insulin injections for intensive treatment, while the experimental group received short-term intensive treatment with an insulin pump. Analysis of blood parameters, including lipids and glucose, as well as islet β-cell function were performed. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the patients was also measured. Oxidative stress indicators, including serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were also examined to explore the possible mechanism. The mRNA expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in PBMCs were analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The results indicated that the blood lipid levels were significantly improved in the two groups at two weeks, while the experimental group had significantly lower levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride, as well as low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The function of islet β-cells was significantly improved in the two groups. The insulin secretion index [homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of β-cell function] in the experimental group was higher, while the insulin resistance (IR) index (HOMA of IR) was significantly lower than that in the control group. The serum MDA level in the experimental group was significantly lower and the SOD level was significantly higher compared with that in the control group. Following treatment, the level of ROS in diabetic PBMCs was significantly reduced, and the transcription level of HO-1 and Nrf2 were also significantly reduced (P<0.05). These results demonstrated that short-term intensive treatment with an insulin pump significantly improved lipid and blood glucose metabolism to protect islet function as well as significantly reducing the level of oxidative stress in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.
Regulator of G protein signaling 12 enhances osteoclastogenesis by suppressing Nrf2-dependent antioxidant proteins to promote the generation of reactive oxygen species
Regulators of G-protein Signaling are a conserved family of proteins required in various biological processes including cell differentiation. We previously demonstrated that Rgs12 is essential for osteoclast differentiation and its deletion in vivo protected mice against pathological bone loss. To characterize its mechanism in osteoclastogenesis, we selectively deleted Rgs12 in C57BL/6J mice targeting osteoclast precursors using -driven Cre mice or overexpressed Rgs12 in RAW264.7 cells. Rgs12 deletion in vivo led to an osteopetrotic phenotype evidenced by increased trabecular bone, decreased osteoclast number and activity but no change in osteoblast number and bone formation. Rgs12 overexpression increased osteoclast number and size, and bone resorption activity. Proteomics analysis of Rgs12-depleted osteoclasts identified an upregulation of antioxidant enzymes under the transcriptional regulation of Nrf2, the master regulator of oxidative stress. We confirmed an increase of Nrf2 activity and impaired reactive oxygen species production in Rgs12-deficient cells. Conversely, Rgs12 overexpression suppressed Nrf2 through a mechanism dependent on the 26S proteasome, and promoted RANKL-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and NFκB, which was abrogated by antioxidant treatment. Our study therefore identified a novel role of Rgs12 in regulating Nrf2, thereby controlling cellular redox state and osteoclast differentiation.
Emerging Screening Approaches in the Development of Nrf2-Keap1 Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors
Due to role of the Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction (PPI) in protecting cells from oxidative stress, the development of small molecule inhibitors that inhibit this interaction has arisen as a viable approach to combat maladies caused by oxidative stress, such as cancers, neurodegenerative disease and diabetes. To obtain specific and genuine Keap1-Nrf2 inhibitors, many efforts have been made towards developing new screening approaches. However, there is no inhibitor for this target entering the clinic for the treatment of human diseases. New strategies to identify novel bioactive compounds from large molecular databases and accelerate the developmental process of the clinical application of Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction inhibitors are greatly needed. In this review, we have summarized virtual screening and other methods for discovering new lead compounds against the Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of different strategies, and the potential of this PPI as a drug target in disease therapy.
Sambucus nigra L. ameliorates UVB-induced photoaging and inflammatory response in human skin keratinocytes
Sambucus nigra L. (Elderberry) is widely used as a dietary supplement in functional food and possesses many pharmacological activities to prevent ailments, such as the colds and fever, diabetes and cancer. However, research on its skin anti-aging effect is still limited. Here, we evaluated the recovery effects of elderberry extract (EB) in UVB-irradiated human skin keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and investigated whether EB represents a potential therapeutic agent against skin photoaging and inflammation. In this study, EB showed good efficiency on scavenging free radicals and dose-dependently reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. EB notably decreased UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression and inflammatory cytokine secretion through the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases/activator protein 1 (MAPK/AP-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways, blocking extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and inflammation in UVB-irradiated HaCaTs. In addition, EB improved nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) signaling to increase oxidative defense capacity, and enhanced transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling activation to promote procollagen type I synthesis, relieving UVB-induced skin cell damage. These results indicated that EB has the potential to ameliorate UVB-induced skin photoaging and inflammation.
MicroRNA-24 inhibits the oxidative stress induced by vascular injury by activating the Nrf2/Ho-1 signaling pathway
The process of endothelial repair in diabetic patients after stent implantation was significantly delayed compared with that in non-diabetic patients, and oxidative stress is increasingly considered to be relevant to the pathogenesis of diabetic endothelial repair. However, the mechanisms linking diabetes and reendothelialization after vascular injury have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of microRNA-24 (miR-24) up-regulation in delayed endothelial repair caused by oxidative stress after balloon injury in diabetic rats.
Coptisine ameliorates renal injury in diabetic rats through the activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway
The present study has been designed and carried out to evaluate the potential of coptisine on diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes was induced in SD rats through one single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) method, and then diabetic rats were orally administered with 25 mg/kg/day coptisine or 50 mg/kg/day coptisine for 8 weeks. Severe impairment of renal function in rats with diabetes was observed as indicated by increased urine protein excretion, kidney hypertrophy index, serum creatinine level, and blood urea nitrogen level. Oxidative stress damage was observed as indicated by increased levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, and decreased levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. However, these alterations in kidneys of rats with diabetes were alleviated by administration of coptisine. Furthermore, the expression levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its targeted antioxidative genes heme oxygenase 1 and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 in the diabetic kidneys were significantly increased after coptisine treatment. These results suggested that coptisine ameliorated oxidative renal injury in diabetic rats, and the possible mechanisms for the renoprotective effects of coptisine may be related to activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway.
The anti-nephritic activity of a polysaccharide from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) via modulation of AMPK-Sirt1-PGC-1α signaling axis mediated anti-oxidative in type 2 diabetes model mice
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) with high morbidity and mortality is one of the most severe diabetes complications and affects nearly one-third of people with diabetes. Our present experiment was designed to assess the potential therapeutic of a polysaccharide purified from okra (OP) on DN in high-fat diet-fed and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. We found that an 8-week treatment with OP could significantly decrease the 24-h urine protein (24-h UP), serum creatinine (Scr), serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, which are regard as the biomarkers of renal injury. The results of immunohistochemical analysis and histopathological examination showed that the diabetic-induced microstructural changes and fibrosis in kidney can be alleviated by the administration of OP (400 mg/kg). Our immunofluorescences results demonstrated that OP (400 mg/kg) could greatly reduce the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in kidney. In addition, we also studied the level of SOD, GSH, CAT, HO-1, Nrf2, p-AMPK, PGC-1α, Sirt1, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax in renal tissue by assay kit and western blot. Our results suggested that OP ameliorated DN in diabetic mice, which is possibly related to suppressing apoptosis and oxidative stress through activating AMPK-Sirt1-PGC-1α signaling axis.
Anti-Diabetic Countermeasures Against Tobacco Smoke-Dependent Cerebrovascular Toxicity: Use and Effect of Rosiglitazone
Tobacco smoking (TS) is one of the most addictive habit sand a main public health hazards, impacting the vascular endothelium through oxidative stress (OS) stimuli, exposure to nicotine, and smoking-induced inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. Increasing evidence also suggested that TS increases glucose intolerance and the risk factor of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (2DM), which, along with TS, is connected to blood-brain barrier (BBB) injuries, and heightens the risk of cerebrovascular disorders. Although the exact mechanism of rosiglitazone (RSG) is unknown, our previous in vitro work showed how RSG, an oral anti-diabetic drug belonging to the family of thiazolidinedione class, can protect BBB integrity through enhancement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) activity. Herein, we have validated the protective role of rosiglitazone against TS-induced BBB impairment in vivo. Our results revealed that RSG as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), activates counteractive mechanisms primarily associated with the upregulation of Nrf2 and PPARγ pathways which reduce TS-dependent toxicity at the cerebrovascular level. In line with these findings, our results show that RSG reduces inflammation and protects BBB integrity. In conclusion, RSG offers a novel and promising therapeutic application to reduce TS-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction through activation of the PPARγ-dependent and/or PPARγ-independent Nrf2 pathway.
Long-term diabetes causes molecular alterations related to fibrosis and apoptosis in rat urinary bladder
Diabetes induces time-dependent alterations in urinary bladders. Long-term diabetes causes an underactive bladder. However, the fundamental mechanisms are still elusive. This study aimed to examine the histological changes and the potential molecular pathways affected by long-term diabetes in the rat bladder. Diabetes was induced in 8-week-old male Lewis rats by streptozotocin, while age-matched control rats received citrate buffer only. Forty-four weeks after diabetes induction, bladders were harvested for histological and molecular analyses. The expressions of proteins related to fibrosis, apoptosis and oxidative stress as well as the cellular signaling pathway in the bladder were examined by immunoblotting. Histological examinations illustrated diabetes caused detrusor hypertrophy and fibrotic changes in the bladder. Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated higher collagen I but lower elastin expression in the bladder in diabetic rats. These were accompanied by an increase in the expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, along with the downregulation of matrix metalloptoteinase-1, and upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. Diabetic rats showed an increase in nitrotyrosine, but decrease in nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) levels in the bladder. Enhanced apoptotic signaling was observed, characterized by increased expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), decreased expression of Bcl-2, in the diabetic bladder. The nerve growth factor level was decreased in the diabetic bladder. A significant suppression in the protein expressions of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 was found in diabetic bladders. This study demonstrated that long-term diabetes caused molecular changes that could promote fibrosis and apoptosis in the bladder. Oxidative stress may be involved in this context.
STAT3 and Nrf2 pathways modulate the protective effect of verapamil on lung injury of diabetic rats
We aimed to assess the protective role of verapamil, L-type calcium channel blockers, against early lung damage in diabetic rats. Lung injury has recently been recognized as a consequent complication of diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycemia induces inflammatory changes in lung tissue early in the disease.
Nrf2-Heme Oxygenase-1 Attenuates High-Glucose-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition of Renal Tubule Cells by Inhibiting ROS-Mediated PI3K/Akt/GSK-3 Signaling
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to play a significant role in the advancement to chronic kidney disease and contributes to the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and renal fibrosis relating to diabetic nephropathy.
Oxidative Stress and Advanced Lipoxidation and Glycation End Products (ALEs and AGEs) in Aging and Age-Related Diseases
Oxidative stress is a consequence of the use of oxygen in aerobic respiration by living organisms and is denoted as a persistent condition of an imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability of the endogenous antioxidant system (AOS) to detoxify them. The oxidative stress theory has been confirmed in many animal studies, which demonstrated that the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and biomolecular stability and integrity is crucial for cellular longevity and successful aging. Mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired protein homeostasis (proteostasis) network, alteration in the activities of transcription factors such as Nrf2 and NF-B, and disturbances in the protein quality control machinery that includes molecular chaperones, ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), and autophagy/lysosome pathway have been observed during aging and age-related chronic diseases. The accumulation of ROS under oxidative stress conditions results in the induction of lipid peroxidation and glycoxidation reactions, which leads to the elevated endogenous production of reactive aldehydes and their derivatives such as glyoxal, methylglyoxal (MG), malonic dialdehyde (MDA), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) giving rise to advanced lipoxidation and glycation end products (ALEs and AGEs, respectively). Both ALEs and AGEs play key roles in cellular response to oxidative stress stimuli through the regulation of a variety of cell signaling pathways. However, elevated ALE and AGE production leads to protein cross-linking and aggregation resulting in an alteration in cell signaling and functioning which causes cell damage and death. This is implicated in aging and various age-related chronic pathologies such as inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, atherosclerosis, and vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. In the present review, we discuss experimental data evidencing the impairment in cellular functions caused by AGE/ALE accumulation under oxidative stress conditions. We focused on the implications of ALEs/AGEs in aging and age-related diseases to demonstrate that the identification of cellular dysfunctions involved in disease initiation and progression can serve as a basis for the discovery of relevant therapeutic agents.