Theaflavin attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by abolishing miRNA‑128‑3p‑mediated Nrf2 inhibition and reducing oxidative stress
Theaflavin has been proven to own strong antioxidative capacity; however, the molecular mechanism underlying its protective effect against cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to elucidate the neuroprotective effects of theaflavin on cerebral I/R injury and its underlying molecular mechanisms. To investigate the effects of theaflavin on neurological function, neurogenesis, and oxidative stress, experiments were performed using a cerebral I/R injury rat model, and neural stem cells (NSCs) were subjected to oxygen‑glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R). Further, the expression profiles of miRNA‑128‑3p and the regulatory function of nuclear factor (erythroid‑derived 2)‑related factor 2 (Nrf2) were evaluated in these models. We found that theaflavin treatment significantly reduced infarct volume and neuronal injury, and thus improved the impaired memory and learning ability. Furthermore, theaflavin treatment significantly enhanced the increase in NSC proliferation, reduction in the apoptotic rate and inhibition of oxidative stress. Mechanistically, theaflavin targeted miRNA‑128‑3p and further activated the Nrf2 pathway to reduce oxidative stress. In summary, theaflavin has a strong ability to attenuate cerebral I/R injury through miRNA‑128‑3p‑mediated recovery of the impaired antioxidant defense system, which suggests that it could be a potential drug candidate for ischemic stroke.
Hydrogen gas protects against delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning in a rat model
: The protective effects of 2%-4% hydrogen gas in delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP) have been previously reported. This study aimed to assess the neuroprotective effects of high concentration hydrogen (HCH) on DEACMP.: A total of 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups. In the DEACMP group, rats were exposed to CO to induce CO poisoning; in the HCH group, the animals were exposed to 67% H and 33% O at 3,000 mL/min for 90 min immediately after CO poisoning. Neurological function was evaluated at 1 and 9 days after poisoning. Then, the contents of malondialdehyde, 3-nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, as well as superoxide dismutase activity in the serum, cortex and hippocampus were detected by ELISA. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf2 and downstream genes were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively.: Our results showed that CO poisoning significantly impaired neurological function which was improved over time, and HCH markedly attenuated neurological impairment following CO poisoning. In addition, CO poisoning resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde, 3-nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and markedly reduced superoxide dismutase activity at 1 and 9 days, which were significantly inhibited by HCH at 9 days. Finally, CO poisoning increased the mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2 and downstream genes, and HCH further induced the anti-oxidative capability.: These findings indicate the neuroprotective effects of HCH on DEACMP, which are related to the activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway.
Involvement of the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway in protection against thallium-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in primary hippocampal neurons
Thallium ion (Tl) and its neurotoxic products are widely known to cause severe neurological complications. However, the exact mechanism of action remains unknown, with limited therapeutic options available. This study aims to examine the toxic effects of Thallium (I) nitrate (TlNO) on primary hippocampal neurons of E17-E18 Wistar rat embryos, and the potential neuroprotective role of Nrf2- Keap1 signaling pathway against thallium-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. TlNO induces a significant increase in reactive oxygen species levels and mitochondrial dysfunction in primary hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway played a protective role against TlNO-induced hippocampal neuronal cytotoxicity. Moreover, mitochondrial fusion protein Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) levels significantly decreased in hippocampal neurons when exposed to TlNO, indicating that Mfn2 protein levels are linked to TlNO-induced neurotoxicity. t-BHQ, a Nrf2 and phase II detoxification enzyme inducer, counteracted the oxidative damage in hippocampal neurons by activating the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway after TlNO exposure; the activated Nrf2-Keap1 pathway could then maintain Mfn2 function by regulating Mfn2 protein expression. Thus, Nrf2-Keap1 pathway activation plays a protective role in Tl-induced brain damage, and specific agonists have been identified to have great potential for treating thallium poisoning.
Gastrodin Attenuates Neuronal Apoptosis and Neurological Deficits after Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Gastrodin, a glucoside of gastrodigenin, inhibits cerebral oxidant stress and apoptosis in multiple central nervous system injury, but its effect in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of gastrodin on neuronal apoptosis and neurological deficits in rat ICH model.
Protective effect of edaravone on blood-brain barrier by affecting NRF-2/HO-1 signaling pathway
Protective effect of edaravone on blood-brain barrier (BBB) in experimental cerebral infarction rats was investigated. SD rats were prepared as the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model and randomly divided into 4 groups: cerebral infarction model group, edaravone low, medium and high dose groups. Healthy rats only for operation and no filament were selected as the sham operation control group. Rats in the cerebral infarction model group and the control group were given normal saline, and those in the edaravone low, medium and high dose groups were given edaravone 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. The survival status, the body weight and neurological function score before and after treatment, the brain water content and the permeability of the blood-brain barrier after treatment were measured. The expression levels of NFE2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and hemeoxygenase 1 (HO-1) in rat brain tissue were detected by western blotting. Levels of peripheral blood malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were detected by ELISA. The state of the rats in three edaravone groups was improved compared with that of the cerebral infarction group. Compared with the cerebral infarction model group, the body weight was significantly increased after treatment and the neurological function score, brain tissue water content and BBB permeability were significantly decreased in three edaravone groups (P<0.05). Compared with the model group of cerebral infarction, the expression of NRF-2 and HO-1 in the brain of the three edaravone groups was significantly higher (P<0.05). Compared with the model group of cerebral infarction, the expression of MDA and GSH in the three edaravone groups was significantly decreased, GSH and SOD was increased (P<0.05), in a dose-dependent manner. Edaravone might play a protective role in the BBB by activating the NRF-2/HO-1 signaling pathway.
Propofol Reduces Inflammatory Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Involvement of PI3K/Akt Pathway
Our previous study showed that propofol, one of the widely used anesthetic agents, can attenuate subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI) via inhibiting inflammatory and oxidative reaction. However, it is perplexing whether propofol attenuates inflammatory and oxidative reaction through modulating PI3K/Akt pathway. The present study investigated whether PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in propofol's anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and neuroprotection against SAH-induced EBI.
Antcamphin M Inhibits TLR4-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Upregulating the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway and Suppressing the NLRP3 Inflammasome Pathway in Macrophages
The medicinal mushroom has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the bioactive compounds in need further investigation. The present study aimed to understand the mechanism of action of antcamphin M, an ergostanoid isolated from mycelium and to clarify its underlying mechanisms of action. RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with the indicated concentrations of antcamphin M, prior to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cell viability, production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E (PGE, cytokines, and chemokines, as well as the inflammation-related signaling pathways were investigated. The study revealed that antcamphin M significantly decreased the LPS-induced production of NO, PGE, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and keratinocyte chemoattractant CXCL1 (KC), along with the levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins without significant cytotoxicity, indicating it had a better anti-inflammatory activity than that of gisenoside Rb1 and Rg1. Additionally, antcamphin M significantly inhibited the activation of MAPKs (p38, ERK, and JNK), NFB, and components of the NLRP3 inflammasome (NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1) signaling pathways and also increased the levels of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). These findings suggest that antcamphin M possesses potent anti-inflammatory activities and could be a potential candidate for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs.
Potential use of edaravone to reduce specific side effects of chemo-, radio- and immuno-therapy of cancers
The drug edaravone (EDA) is prescribed for the treatment of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or after an acute cerebral infarction. This synthetic pyrazolone derivative is a potent scavenger of oxygen free radicals and also functions as a modulator of transcription factors, repressing NFκB and activating Nrf2, to regulate oxidative stress. EDA displays complementary anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The injectable small molecule is currently investigated for the treatment of several non-neurological diseases. The potential interest of EDA in oncology is reviewed here. EDA is a mild antiproliferative agent but has been found to enhance significantly the anticancer and antimetastatic activities of irinotecan in a colon cancer model. Anticancer derivatives of EDA have been designed but they generally display a limited antiproliferative activity. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of EDA can be best exploited to protect non-tumor cells from damages induced by chemotherapeutic drugs and radiations. Notably EDA can reduce the renal dysfunction induced by cisplatin, the neurotoxicity of cyclophosphamide and the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. Upon treatment with EDA, a significant improvement in neurologic symptoms has been observed in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy. The drug could be used to limit radiation-induced brain injury or oral mucositis. EDA was found to ameliorate autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto thyroiditis), which is a frequent side effect observed after treatment of cancer patients with monoclonal antibodies targeting the immune checkpoint PD-1. Therefore, EDA could also be useful to reduce specific side effects of immuno-therapy. Collectively, the information suggests that the medical use of EDA, a drug with a proven safety after 18 years of use in brain-related Human diseases, could be extended to cancer-related conditions.
Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Neuroinflammatory-Induced Apoptosis after Traumatic Brain Injury via Nrf2 signaling pathway
Dexmedetomidine (DEX) exhibits neuroprotective effects as a multifunctional neuroprotective agent in numerous neurological disorders. However, in traumatic brain injury (TBI), the molecular mechanisms of these neuroprotective effects remain unclear. The present study investigated whether DEX, which has been reported to exert protective effects against TBI, could attenuate neuroinflammatory-induced apoptosis and clarified the underlying mechanisms.
Reactive Gliosis Contributes to Nrf2-Dependent Neuroprotection by Pretreatment with Dimethyl Fumarate or Korean Red Ginseng Against Hypoxic-Ischemia: Focus on Hippocampal Injury
Recently, dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and Korean red ginseng (ginseng), based on their purported antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, have exhibited protective potential in various neurological conditions. Their effects on cerebral ischemia and underlying mechanisms remain inconclusive; however, increasing evidence indicates the involvement of the transcriptional factor Nrf2. This study evaluated the preventive effects of DMF and ginseng on hippocampal neuronal damage following hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and assessed the contributions of reactive gliosis and the Nrf2 pathway. Adult wild type (WT) and Nrf2 mice were pretreated with DMF or ginseng for 7 days prior to HI. At 24 h after HI, DMF or ginseng significantly reduced infarct volume (52.5 ± 12.3% and 47.8 ± 10.7%), brain edema (61.5 ± 17.4% and 39.3 ± 12.8%), and hippocampal CA1 neuronal degeneration, and induced expressions of Nrf2 target proteins in WT, but not Nrf2, mice. Such hippocampal neuroprotective benefits were also observed at 6 h and 7 days after HI. The dynamic attenuation of reactive gliosis in microglia and astrocytes correlated well with this sustained neuroprotection in an Nrf2-dependent manner. In both early and late stages of HI, astrocytic dysfunctions in extracellular glutamate clearance and water transport, as indicated by glutamine synthetase and aquaporin 4, were also attenuated after HI in WT, but not Nrf2, mice treated with DMF or ginseng. Together, DMF and ginseng confer robust and prolonged Nrf2-dependent neuroprotection against ischemic hippocampal damage. The salutary Nrf2-dependent attenuation of reactive gliosis may contribute to this neuroprotection, offering new insight into the cellular basis of an Nrf2-targeting strategy for stroke prevention or treatment.
Diallyl Trisulfide Protects Rat Brain Tissue against the Damage Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion through the Nrf2 Pathway
Stroke is a public health problem due to its high mortality and disability rates; despite these, the pharmacological treatments are limited. Oxidative stress plays an important role in cerebral damage in stroke and the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) confers protection against oxidative stress. Different compounds, such as diallyl trisulfide (DATS), have the ability to activate Nrf2. DATS protects against the damage induced in oxygen-glucose deprivation in neuronal cells; however, in in vivo models of cerebral ischemia, DATS has not been evaluated. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 1 h of ischemia and seven days of reperfusion and the protective effect of DATS was evaluated. DATS administration (IR + DATS) decreased the infarct area and brain damage in the striatum and cortex; improved neurological function; decreased malondialdehyde and metalloproteinase-9 levels; increased Nrf2 activation in the cortex and the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in the nucleus, SOD2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the striatum and cortex; and increased the activity of catalase (CAT) in the striatum and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the cortex. Our results demonstrate the protective effect of DATS in an in vivo model of cerebral ischemia that involves Nrf2 activation.
Effect of levocarnitine on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats via activating Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway
Levocarnitine plays a crucial role in the metabolism of organisms. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of Levocarnitine on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) rats and the underlying mechanism.
- Phytochemistry and mechanisms of neuroprotection and cognitive enhancement
This review describes in detail the phytochemistry and neurological effects of the medicinal herb (L.) Urban. is a small perennial plant that grows in moist, tropical and sub-tropical regions throughout the world. Phytochemicals identified from to date include isoprenoids (sesquiterpenes, plant sterols, pentacyclic triterpenoids and saponins) and phenylpropanoid derivatives (eugenol derivatives, caffeoylquinic acids, and flavonoids). Contemporary methods for fingerprinting and characterization of compounds in extracts include liquid chromatography and/or ion mobility spectrometry in conjunction with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multiple studies in rodent models, and a limited number of human studies support 's traditional reputation as a cognitive enhancer, as well as its anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects. Neuroprotective effects of are seen in several models, for example against beta amyloid toxicity, and appear to be associated with increased mitochondrial activity, improved antioxidant status, and/or inhibition of the pro-inflammatory enzyme, phospholipase A2. Neurotropic effects of include increased dendritic arborization and synaptogenesis, and may be due to modulations of signal transduction pathways such as ERK1/2 and Akt. Many of these neurotropic and neuroprotective properties of have been associated with the triterpene compounds asiatic acid, asiaticoside and madecassoside. More recently, caffeoylquinic acids are emerging as a second important group of active compounds in , with the potential of enhancing the Nrf2-antioxidant response pathway. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the triterpenes, caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids found in have been studied in humans and animal models, and the compounds or their metabolites found in the brain. This review highlights the remarkable potential for extracts and derivatives to be used in the treatment of neurological conditions, and considers the further research needed to actualize this possibility.
Signaling Pathways, Chemical and Biological Modulators of Nucleotide Excision Repair: The Faithful Shield against UV Genotoxicity
The continuous exposure of the human body's cells to radiation and genotoxic stresses leads to the accumulation of DNA lesions. Fortunately, our body has several effective repair mechanisms, among which is nucleotide excision repair (NER), to counteract these lesions. NER includes both global genome repair (GG-NER) and transcription-coupled repair (TC-NER). Deficiencies in the NER pathway underlie the development of several DNA repair diseases, such as xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). Deficiencies in GG-NER and TC-NER render individuals to become prone to cancer and neurological disorders, respectively. Therefore, NER regulation is of interest in fine-tuning these risks. Distinct signaling cascades including the NFE2L2 (NRF2), AHR, PI3K/AKT1, MAPK, and CSNK2A1 pathways can modulate NER function. In addition, several chemical and biological compounds have proven success in regulating NER's activity. These modulators, particularly the positive ones, could therefore provide potential treatments for genetic DNA repair-based diseases. Negative modulators, nonetheless, can help sensitize cells to killing by genotoxic chemicals. In this review, we will summarize and discuss the major upstream signaling pathways and molecules that could modulate the NER's activity.
Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes as a nanotherapeutic agent for amelioration of inflammation-induced astrocyte alterations in mice
Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (MSC-Exo) have robust anti-inflammatory effects in the treatment of neurological diseases such as epilepsy, stroke, or traumatic brain injury. While astrocytes are thought to be mediators of these effects, their precise role remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we investigated the putative therapeutic effects and mechanism of MSC-Exo on inflammation-induced alterations in astrocytes. : Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated hippocampal astrocytes in primary culture were treated with MSC-Exo, which were also administered in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) mice. Exosomal integration, reactive astrogliosis, inflammatory responses, calcium signaling, and mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMP) were monitored. To experimentally probe the molecular mechanism of MSC-Exo actions on the inflammation-induced astrocytic activation, we inhibited the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2, like 2 (Nrf2, a key mediator in neuroinflammation and oxidative stress) by sgRNA (in vitro) or ML385 (Nrf2 inhibitor) in vivo. : MSC-Exo were incorporated into hippocampal astrocytes as well as attenuated reactive astrogliosis and inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Also, MSC-Exo ameliorated LPS-induced aberrant calcium signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction in culture, and SE-induced learning and memory impairments in mice. Furthermore, the putative therapeutic effects of MSC-Exo on inflammation-induced astrocytic activation (e.g., reduced reactive astrogliosis, NF-κB deactivation) were weakened by Nrf2 inhibition. : Our results show that MSC-Exo ameliorate inflammation-induced astrocyte alterations and that the Nrf2-NF-κB signaling pathway is involved in regulating astrocyte activation in mice. These data suggest the promising potential of MSC-Exo as a nanotherapeutic agent for the treatment of neurological diseases with hippocampal astrocyte alterations.