Protective effect of dexmedetomidine against diabetic hyperglycemia-exacerbated cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury: An in vivo and in vitro study
Chen L, Cao J, Cao D, Wang M, Xiang H, Yang Y, Ying T and Cong H
Dexmedetomidine (Dex) has been noted to have neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the effect of Dex in diabetic hyperglycemia-exacerbated cerebral I/R injury and its underlying mechanism remain unclear.
The S1P mimetic fingolimod phosphate regulates mitochondrial oxidative stress in neuronal cells
Martín-Montañez E, Pavia J, Valverde N, Boraldi F, Lara E, Oliver B, Hurtado-Guerrero I, Fernandez O and Garcia-Fernandez M
Fingolimod is one of the few oral drugs available for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. The mechanism of action proposed for this drug is based in the phosphorylation of the molecule to produce its active metabolite fingolimod phosphate (FP) which, in turns, through its interaction with S1P receptors, triggers the functional sequestration of T lymphocytes in lymphoid nodes. On the other hand, part if not most of the damage produced in MS and other neurological disorders seem to be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondria is one of the main sources of ROS. In the present work, we have evaluated the anti-oxidant profile of FP in a model of mitochondrial oxidative damage induced by menadione (Vitk3) on neuronal cultures. We provide evidence that incubation of neuronal cells with FP alleviates the Vitk3-induced toxicity, due to a decrease in mitochondrial ROS production. It also decreases regulated cell death triggered by imbalance in oxidative stress (restore values of advanced oxidation protein products and total thiol levels). Also restores mitochondrial function (cytochrome c oxidase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxygen consumption rate) and morphology. Furthermore, increases the expression and activity of protective factors (increases Nrf2, HO1 and Trx2 expression and GST and NQO1 activity), being some of these effects modulated by its interaction with the S1P receptor. FP seems to increase mitochondrial stability and restore mitochondrial dynamics under conditions of oxidative stress, making this drug a potential candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases other than MS.
Monomethyl fumarate protects cerebral hemorrhage injury in rats via activating microRNA-139/Nrf2 axis
Shi YY, Cui HF and Qin BJ
Monomethyl fumarate (MF) exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities. Whether microRNA-139 and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) are involved in the pharmacological activity of MF remain unclear. We aim to elucidate the potential function of MF in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and its possible mechanism.
Salidroside Reduces Inflammation and Brain Injury After Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats by Regulating PI3K/PKB/Nrf2/NFκB Signaling Rather than Complement C3 Activity
Zhang X, Lai W, Ying X, Xu L, Chu K, Brown J, Chen L and Hong G
Salidroside, an active constituent of Rhodiola rosea, is neuroprotective after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). However, its effects in other experimental stroke models are less understood. Here, we investigated the effect of daily intraperitoneal injections of salidroside in rats after permanent MCAO (pMCAO). Cerebral infarct volumes at 1 day after pMCAO were significantly reduced by treatment with 100 mg/kg/day salidroside, but not by 25 or 50 mg/kg/day, and this benefit of salidroside increased significantly over at least 7 days of treatment, when it was also accompanied by decreased neurological deficit scores. These observations led us to investigate the underlying mechanism of action of salidroside. 100 mg/kg salidroside for 1 day increased NeuN, Nrf2, and its downstream mediator HO-1, while it reduced nuclear NFκB p50, IL-6, and TNFα. Brusatol, a Nrf2 inhibitor, blocked the actions of salidroside on Nrf2, NFκB p50, IL-6, and TNFα. Salidroside also increased the ratio of p-PKB/PKB at 1 day after pMCAO even in the presence of brusatol. LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, prevented all these effects of salidroside, including those on NeuN, p-PKB/PKB, Nrf2, HO-1, and pro-inflammatory mediators. In contrast, salidroside had no significant effect on the level of cerebral complement C3 after pMCAO, or on the activity of C3 as measured by the expression of cerebral Egr1. Our findings therefore suggest that salidroside reduces neuroinflammation and neural damage by regulating the PI3K/PKB/Nrf2/NFκB signaling pathway after pMCAO, and that this neuroprotective effect does not involve modulation of complement C3 activity.
Histone deacetylase 6 interference protects mice against experimental stroke-induced brain injury via activating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway
Li J, Zhao Y, Shi J, Ren Z, Chen F and Tang W
Cerebral stroke is a fatal disease with increasing incidence. The study was to investigate the role and mechanism of Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) on experimental stroke-induced brain injury. The recombinant shRNA-HDAC6 or scramble shRNA lentivirus was transfected to ICR mice. Then, the ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/RI) mice were constructed using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method. Brain TTC staining was used to determine infarct areas. Serum levels of oxidative stress-related factors were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA). Realtime-qPCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blot were used to respectively detect mRNA and protein levels. HDAC6 was up-regulated in brain I/RI mice (MCAO group), and down-regulated again in MCAO mice transfected with shRNA-HDAC6 (MCAO + shRNA group). The infarct area of the MCAO mice was increased, neurological scores were higher, and serum protein levels of 3-NT, 4-HNE and 8-OHdG were higher. HDAC6 interference attenuated above effects. Though protein levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in cytoplasm increased slightly in MCAO group, they increased significantly by HDAC6 interference. The protein levels of Nrf2 in cytoblast decreased significantly in MCAO group, and increased markedly by HDAC6 interference. HDAC6 interference protected mice against experimental stroke-induced brain injury via Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.
Sestrin2 overexpression attenuates focal cerebral ischemic injury in rat by increasing Nrf2/HO-1 pathway-mediated angiogenesis
Wang P, Zhao Y, Li Y, Wu J, Yu S, Zhu J, Li L and Zhao Y
Sestrin2 (Sesn2) is a stress response protein which expresses neuroprotective characteristics in some neurodegenerative disorders. However, the impact of Sesn2 on the clinical outcome of stroke is unclear. The nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) pathway is a key factor in angiogenesis, which aids in attenuating cerebral ischemia damage. In this study the investigators examine the effects of Sesn2 on cerebral ischemia damage by increasing angiogenesis through the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. Healthy adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to photochemical cerebral ischemia while AAV injection was used to overexpress Sesn2. At 5 days after photochemical embolization, the investigators observed a reduction in neurological problems, decreased infarct volume, and diminished neuronal injury in the Sesn2 overexpression samples compared to the controls. To further explore these defensive mechanisms, the investigators also silenced Nrf2. While Sesn2, Nrf2, HO-1, and VEGF were significantly increased following cerebral ischemia, overexpression of Sesn2 further increased their expression. After silencing Nrf2, the opposite effect was observed. These results imply that Sestrin2 may activate the Nrf2 / HO-1 pathway, leading to enhanced angiogenesis following photothrombotic cerebral ischemia.
HDAC3 inhibition prevents blood-brain barrier permeability through Nrf2 activation in type 2 diabetes male mice
Zhao Q, Zhang F, Yu Z, Guo S, Liu N, Jiang Y, Lo EH, Xu Y and Wang X
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic dysfunction characterized by progressive insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia. Increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is a critical neurovascular complication of T2DM that adversely affects the central nervous system homeostasis and function. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has been reported to be elevated in T2DM animals and may promote neuroinflammation; however, its involvement in the BBB permeability of T2DM has not been investigated. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that HDAC3 expression and activity are increased in the T2DM mouse brain. Inhibition of HDAC3 may ameliorate T2DM-induced BBB permeability through Nrf2 activation.
Tetramethylpyrazine Nitrone Reduces Oxidative Stress to Alleviate Cerebral Vasospasm in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Models
Wu L, Su Z, Zha L, Zhu Z, Liu W, Sun Y, Yu P, Wang Y, Zhang G and Zhang Z
Cerebral vasospasm is one of the deleterious complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), leading to delayed cerebral ischemia and permanent neurological deficits or even death. Free radicals and oxidative stress are considered as crucial causes contributing to cerebral vasospasm and brain damage after SAH. Tetramethylpyrazine nitrone (TBN), a derivative of the clinically used anti-stroke drug tetramethylpyrazine armed with a powerful free radical scavenging nitrone moiety, has been reported to prevent brain damage from ischemic stroke. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of TBN on vasospasm and brain damage after SAH. Two experimental SAH models were used, a rat model by endovascular perforation and a rabbit model by intracisternal injection of autologous blood. The effects of TBN on SAH were evaluated assessing basilar artery spasm, neuronal apoptosis, and neurological deficits. TBN treatment significantly attenuated vasospasm, improved neurological behavior functions and reduced the number of apoptotic neurons in both the SAH rats and rabbits. Mechanistically, TBN suppressed the increase in 3-nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine immuno-positive cells in the cortex of SAH rat brain. Western blot analyses indicated that TBN effectively reversed the altered expression of Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome C, and up-regulated nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expressions. In the in vitro studies, TBN inhibited HO-induced bEnd.3 cell apoptosis and reduced ROS generation. Additionally, TBN alleviated the contraction of rat basilar artery rings induced by HO ex vivo. In conclusion, TBN ameliorated SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm and neuronal damage. These effects of TBN may be attributed to its anti-oxidative stress effect and up-regulation of Nrf2/HO-1.
Microglial-targeting induced by intranasal linalool during neurological protection postischemia
Barrera-Sandoval AM, Osorio E and Cardona-Gómez GP
Stroke is the second cause of death and first cause of physical disability around the world; it affects the brain parenchyma through oxygen deficiency and spreads excitotoxicity. The complexity of the disease has made it difficult to find effective therapies. It is necessary to identify new treatments that effectively act within the narrow therapeutic window but also offer long-term protection poststroke. Our previous work found that oral linalool reversed the hippocampal and peripheral pro-inflammatory phospholipidomic biomarkers in ischemic rats; based on these observations, the "proof of concept" was to demonstrate that intranasal administration of linalool has a faster delivery to the central nervous system to protect it after focal ischemia in Wistar rats. The ischemic animals treated with linalool (25 mg/kg) showed a decrease in infarct volume at 24 h and seven days, and the treated animals had better neurological and motor skills at both poststroke times. Additionally, one month after daily intranasal administration of linalool, the ischemic rats showed improved relearning performance in the Morris water maze test. They also exhibited a reduction in microgliosis and decreased COX2, IL-1Beta and Nrf2 markers in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In astrocyte and microglial cultures, linalool reduced pro-inflammation and had a potent effect on microglial cells, generating Nrf2 subcellular redistribution under glutamate excitotoxicity conditions. Together, our findings indicate an acute and chronic recovery after ischemia induced by a daily intranasal puff of linalool, which mainly acts on microglial populations with anti-inflammatory actions.
In Vitro and In Vivo Neuroprotective Effects of Stellettin B Through Anti-Apoptosis and the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway
Feng CW, Chen NF, Wen ZH, Yang WY, Kuo HM, Sung PJ, Su JH, Cheng SY and Chen WF
Pharmaceutical agents for halting the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) are lacking. The current available medications only relieve clinical symptoms and may cause severe side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel drug candidates for PD. In this study, we demonstrated the neuroprotective activity of stellettin B (SB), a compound isolated from marine sponges. We showed that SB could significantly protect SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA-induced cellular damage by inhibiting cell apoptosis and oxidative stress through PI3K/Akt, MAPK, caspase cascade modulation and Nrf2/HO-1 cascade modulation, respectively. In addition, an in vivo study showed that SB reversed 6-OHDA-induced a locomotor deficit in a zebrafish model of PD. The potential for developing SB as a candidate drug for PD treatment is discussed.
Forsythiaside A protects against focal cerebral ischemic injury by mediating the activation of the Nrf2 and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways
Ma T, Shi YL and Wang YL
Ischemic stroke is a common type of stroke with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Preventing and controlling cerebral ischemic injury is particularly important. Forsythiaside A (FA) has been reported to have anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of FA on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)‑induced cerebral ischemic injury in rats. The results indicated that FA markedly increased the percent survival and decreased the neurological deficit score in rats with cerebral ischemic injury. Furthermore, cell apoptosis was significantly inhibited by FA administration, which was accompanied by decreased caspase‑3 and caspase‑9 expression. A marked increase in the expression levels of nuclear factor‑erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2), NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 and glutathione‑s‑transferase was detected in FA‑treated rats. In addition, treatment with FA reduced malonaldehyde expression, and enhanced the expression of superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Furthermore, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was vastly alleviated by FA treatment, as evidenced by the increased expression of B‑cell lymphoma 2, apoptosis regulator and the downregulated expression of phosphorylated (phospho)‑protein kinase RNA‑like ER kinase (PERK)/PERK, phospho‑inositol‑requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1α)/IRE1α and CCAAT‑enhancer‑binding proteins homologous protein. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that FA attenuated cerebral ischemic damage via mediation of the activation of Nrf2 and ER stress pathways. These data may provide ideas for novel treatment strategies of cerebral ischemic damage.
Erythropoietin and Friedreich Ataxia: Time for a Reappraisal?
Boesch S and Indelicato E
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a rare neurological disorder due to deficiency of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Frataxin deficiency results in impaired mitochondrial function and iron deposition in affected tissues. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a cytokine which was mostly known as a key regulator of erythropoiesis until cumulative evidence showed additional neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties. These features offered the rationale for advancement of EPO in clinical trials in different neurological disorders in the past years, including FRDA. Several mechanisms of action of EPO may be beneficial in FRDA. First of all, EPO exposure results in frataxin upregulation and . By promoting erythropoiesis, EPO influences iron metabolism and induces shifts in iron pool which may ameliorate conditions of free iron excess and iron accumulation. Furthermore, EPO signaling is crucial for mitochondrial gene activation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Up to date nine clinical trials investigated the effects of EPO and derivatives in FRDA. The majority of these studies had a proof-of-concept design. Considering the natural history of FRDA, all of them were too short in duration and not powered for clinical changes. However, these studies addressed significant issues in the treatment with EPO, such as (1) the challenge of the dose finding, (2) stability of frataxin up-regulation, (3) continuous versus intermittent stimulation with EPO/regimen, or (4) tissue changes after EPO exposure in humans (muscle biopsy, brain imaging). Despite several clinical trials in the past, no treatment is available for the treatment of FRDA. Current lines of research focus on gene therapy, frataxin replacement strategies and on regulation of key metabolic checkpoints such as NrF2. Due to potential crosstalk with all these mechanisms, interventions on the EPO pathway still represent a valuable research field. The recent development of small EPO mimetics which maintain cytoprotective properties without erythropoietic action may open a new era in EPO research for the treatment of FRDA.
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the novel Nrf2 activator omaveloxolone in primates
Reisman SA, Gahir SS, Lee CI, Proksch JW, Sakamoto M and Ward KW
Omaveloxolone is a synthetic oleanane triterpenoid that pharmacologically activates Nrf2, a master transcription factor that regulates genes with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and mitochondrial bioenergetic properties, and is being evaluated in patients with Friedreich's ataxia.
Neuroprotective Role of the Nrf2 Pathway in Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Its Therapeutic Potential
Zolnourian A, Galea I and Bulters D
The mechanisms underlying poor outcome following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) are complex and multifactorial. They include early brain injury, spreading depolarisation, inflammation, oxidative stress, macroscopic cerebral vasospasm, and microcirculatory disturbances. Nrf2 is a global promoter of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory response and has potential protective effects against all of these mechanisms. It has been shown to be upregulated after SAH, and Nrf2 knockout animals have poorer functional and behavioural outcomes after SAH. There are many agents known to activate the Nrf2 pathway. Of these, the actions of sulforaphane, curcumin, astaxanthin, lycopene, -butylhydroquinone, dimethyl fumarate, melatonin, and erythropoietin have been studied in SAH models. This review details the different mechanisms of injury after SAH including the contribution of haemoglobin (Hb) and its breakdown products. It then summarises the evidence that the Nrf2 pathway is active and protective after SAH and finally examines the evidence supporting Nrf2 upregulation as a therapy after SAH.
Curcumin as an Alternative Epigenetic Modulator: Mechanism of Action and Potential Effects
Hassan FU, Rehman MS, Khan MS, Ali MA, Javed A, Nawaz A and Yang C
Curcumin (a polyphenolic compound in turmeric) is famous for its potent anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer properties, and has a great potential to act as an epigenetic modulator. The epigenetic regulatory roles of curcumin include the inhibition of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), regulation of histone modifications via the regulation of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), regulation of microRNAs (miRNA), action as a DNA binding agent and interaction with transcription factors. These mechanisms are interconnected and play a vital role in tumor progression. The recent research has demonstrated the role of epigenetic inactivation of pivotal genes that regulate human pathologies such as cancers. Epigenetics helps to understand the mechanism of chemoprevention of cancer through different therapeutic agents. In this regard, dietary phytochemicals, such as curcumin, have emerged as a potential source to reverse epigenetic modifications and efficiently regulate the expression of genes and molecular targets that are involved in the promotion of tumorigenesis. The curcumin may also act as an epigenetic regulator in neurological disorders, inflammation, and diabetes. Moreover, curcumin can induce the modifications of histones (acetylation/deacetylation), which are among the most important epigenetic changes responsible for altered expression of genes leading to modulating the risks of cancers. Curcumin is an effective medicinal agent, as it regulates several important molecular signaling pathways that modulate survival, govern anti-oxidative properties like nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and inflammation pathways, e.g., nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Curcumin is a potent proteasome inhibitor that increases p-53 level and induces apoptosis through caspase activation. Moreover, the disruption of 26S proteasome activity induced by curcumin through inhibiting DYRK2 in different cancerous cells resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation opens up a new horizon for using curcumin as a potential preventive and treatment approach in proteasome-linked cancers. This review presents a brief summary of knowledge about the mechanism of epigenetic changes induced by curcumin and the potential effects of curcumin such as anti-oxidant activity, enhancement of wound healing, modulation of angiogenesis and its interaction with inflammatory cytokines. The development of curcumin as a clinical molecule for successful chemo-prevention and alternate therapeutic approach needs further mechanistic insights.