Classification of drug molecules for oxidative stress signalling pathway
In humans, oxidative stress is involved in the development of diabetes, cancer, hypertension, Alzheimers' disease, and heart failure. One of the mechanisms in the cellular defence against oxidative stress is the activation of the Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) signalling pathway. Computation of activity, efficacy, and potency score of ARE signalling pathway and to propose a multi-level prediction scheme for the same is the main aim of the study as it contributes in a big amount to the improvement of oxidative stress in humans. Applying the process of knowledge discovery from data, required knowledge is gathered and then machine learning techniques are applied to propose a multi-level scheme. The validation of the proposed scheme is done using the K-fold cross-validation method and an accuracy of 90% is achieved for prediction of activity score for ARE molecules which determine their power to refine oxidative stress.
Nardosinanone N suppresses LPS-induced macrophage activation by modulating the Nrf2 pathway and mPGES-1
The side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the cardiovascular system mainly result from its inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Since NSAIDs are one of the most commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs in the clinic, it is necessary to identify new anti-inflammatory drugs that are safer than NSAIDs. Nardosinanone N (NAN), a compound isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Nardostachys chinensis, was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory effects using the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cell line and rat peritoneal macrophage models. First, we found that NAN down regulated the levels of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and prostaglandin E (PGE), but not cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Additionally, NAN reduced the M1 macrophage phenotype and increased the M2 macrophage phenotype. Furthermore, mechanistic studies showed that NAN activated the nuclear factor-erythroid 2 -related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, which, in turn, increased the expression of antioxidant protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) to achieve its anti-inflammatory effect. Finally, Nrf2 siRNA and the HO-1 inhibitor significantly attenuated the anti-inflammatory effect of NAN. More interestingly, we found that NAN did not affect COX-2 expression and activity but reduced the PGE concentration by selective inhibition of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). In conclusion, NAN may be a new anti-inflammatory drug that has fewer side effects than NSAIDs and can be a new potential Nrf2 activator and mPGES-1 inhibitor.
Seaweed natural products modify the host inflammatory response via Nrf2 signaling and alter colon microbiota composition and gene expression
Seaweeds are an important component of human diets, especially in Asia and the Pacific islands, and have shown chemopreventive as well as anti-inflammatory properties. However, structural characterization and mechanistic insight of seaweed components responsible for their biological activities are lacking. We isolated cymopol and related natural products from the marine green alga Cymopolia barbata and demonstrated their function as activators of transcription factor Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response to increase the cellular antioxidant status. We probed the reactivity of the bioactivation product of cymopol, cymopol quinone, which was able to modify various cysteine residues of Nrf2's cytoplasmic repressor protein Keap1. The observed adducts are reflective of the polypharmacology at the level of natural product, due to multiple electrophilic centers, and at the amino acid level of the cysteine-rich target protein Keap1. The non-polar C. barbata extract and its major active component cymopol, reduced inflammatory gene transcription in vitro in macrophages and mouse embryonic fibroblasts in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Cymopol-containing extracts attenuated neutrophil migration in a zebrafish tail wound model. RNA-seq analysis of colonic tissues of mice exposed to non-polar extract or cymopol showed an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory response, with more pronounced effects exhibited by the extract. Cymopolia extract reduced DSS-induced colitis as measured by fecal lipocalin concentration. RNA-seq showed that mucosal-associated bacterial composition and transcriptional profile in large intestines were beneficially altered to varying degrees in mice treated with either the extract or cymopol. We conclude that seaweed-derived compounds, especially cymopol, alter Nrf2-mediated host and microbial gene expression, thereby providing polypharmacological effects.
A polysaccharide from mulberry fruit ( L.) protects against palmitic acid-induced hepatocyte lipotoxicity by activating Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway
This study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of three different mulberry fruit polysaccharide fractions (MFP-Ⅰ, MFP-Ⅱ, MFP-Ⅲ) against palmitic acid (PA)-induced hepatocyte lipotoxicity, and characterize the functional polysaccharide fraction using GPC, HPLC, FT-IR, and NMR analysis. MFP-Ⅰ, MFP-Ⅱ, MFP-Ⅲ were isolated from mulberry fruit by stepwise precipitation with 30%, 60%, 90% ethanol respectively. MFP-Ⅱ at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mL dramatically attenuated PA-induced hepatic lipotoxicity, while MFP-Ⅰ and MFP-Ⅲ showed weak protection. It was demonstrated that MFP-Ⅱ not only increased Nrf2 phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation, thereby activating Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, but also enhanced HO-1, NQO1, γ-GCL gene expressions and promoted catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities, which protected hepatocytes against PA-induced oxidative stress and lipotoxicity. Further investigation indicated that the molecular weight of MFP-Ⅱ was 115.0 kDa, and MFP-Ⅱ mainly consisted of galactose (30.5%), arabinose (26.2%) and rhamnose (23.1%). Overall, our research might provide an in-depth insight into mulberry fruit polysaccharide in ameliorating lipid metabolic disorders.
Characterization by Empirical and Computational Methods of Dictyospiromide, an Intriguing Antioxidant Alkaloid from the Marine Alga
The challenging structural motif of dictyospiromide (), a spirosuccinimide alkaloid with antioxidant properties that are associated with activation of the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, was assigned using contemporary NMR experiments complemented with anisotropic NMR, chiroptical, and computational methodologies. Anisotropic NMR parameters provided critical orthogonal verification of the configuration of the difficult to assign spiro carbon and the other stereogenic centers in .
MicroRNA-24 inhibits the oxidative stress induced by vascular injury by activating the Nrf2/Ho-1 signaling pathway
The process of endothelial repair in diabetic patients after stent implantation was significantly delayed compared with that in non-diabetic patients, and oxidative stress is increasingly considered to be relevant to the pathogenesis of diabetic endothelial repair. However, the mechanisms linking diabetes and reendothelialization after vascular injury have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of microRNA-24 (miR-24) up-regulation in delayed endothelial repair caused by oxidative stress after balloon injury in diabetic rats.
Diallyl Trisulfide Protects Rat Brain Tissue against the Damage Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion through the Nrf2 Pathway
Stroke is a public health problem due to its high mortality and disability rates; despite these, the pharmacological treatments are limited. Oxidative stress plays an important role in cerebral damage in stroke and the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) confers protection against oxidative stress. Different compounds, such as diallyl trisulfide (DATS), have the ability to activate Nrf2. DATS protects against the damage induced in oxygen-glucose deprivation in neuronal cells; however, in in vivo models of cerebral ischemia, DATS has not been evaluated. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 1 h of ischemia and seven days of reperfusion and the protective effect of DATS was evaluated. DATS administration (IR + DATS) decreased the infarct area and brain damage in the striatum and cortex; improved neurological function; decreased malondialdehyde and metalloproteinase-9 levels; increased Nrf2 activation in the cortex and the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in the nucleus, SOD2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the striatum and cortex; and increased the activity of catalase (CAT) in the striatum and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the cortex. Our results demonstrate the protective effect of DATS in an in vivo model of cerebral ischemia that involves Nrf2 activation.
2-Methoxy-7-Acetonyljuglone Isolated from Increases the Activity of Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor-2 through Inhibition of Ubiquitin Degradation in HeLa Cells
The nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a key transcription factor for the activation of genes responsible for oxidative stress and drug detoxification. Thus, it is important to identify NRF2 activators, which can be used to protect the cells from oxidative damage. Here, we investigated the effect of juglone derivatives isolated from on the activity of NRF2 in HeLa cells. We demonstrated that among the juglone derivatives, 2-methoxy-7-acetonyljuglone (MA) strongly stimulated the antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MA significantly increased the nuclear localization of NRF2 and, consequently, increased the expression of NRF2 target genes, including heme oxygenase-1(), NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase-1 (, and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (). To gain insights into the NRF2 signaling mechanism by MA, we measured the activities of RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family proteins, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38. Our results showed that MA induced NRF2 activity through p38 and AKT signaling. Subsequently, we found that MA significantly enhanced NRF2 stability by inhibiting ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. Thus, MA might protect cells by enhancing the activity and stability of NRF2 through inhibition of the proteasomal degradation pathway.
(10)-Debromohymenialdisine from Marine Sponge sp. Regulates Intestinal Inflammatory Responses in Co-Culture Model of Epithelial Caco-2 Cells and THP-1 Macrophage Cells
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), collectively referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are autoimmune diseases characterized by chronic inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. Debromohymenialdisine is an active pyrrole alkaloid that is well known to serve as a stable and effective inhibitor of Chk2. In the present study, we attempted to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of (10)-debromohymenialdisine () isolated from marine sponge species using an intestinal in vitro model with a transwell co-culture system. The treatment with attenuated the production and gene expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor-α in co-cultured THP-1 macrophages at a concentration range of 1-5 μM. The protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 were down-regulated in response to the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) translocation into the nucleus in cells. In addition, we observed that markedly promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and subsequent increase of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. These findings suggest the potential use of as a pharmaceutical lead in the treatment of inflammation-related diseases including IBD.
Glutathione Induced Immune-Stimulatory Activity by Promoting M1-Like Macrophages Polarization via Potential ROS Scavenging Capacity
The present study investigated the immunomodulatory activity of reduced glutathione (GSH) by assessment of the macrophage polarization (MP)-mediated immune response in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, we identified the signal pathway associated with immune regulation by GSH. The expressions of MP-associated cytokines and chemokines were assessed using cytokine array, nCounter Sprit platform, ELISA and immunoblotting. Phagocytosis activity and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured using fluorescence-activated cell sorter. As results of the cytokine array and nCounter gene array, GSH not only up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins and tumor necrosis factor-α, but also overexpressed neutrophil-attracting chemokines. Furthermore, GSH significantly stimulated the production of immune mediators, including nitric oxide and PGE, as well as phagocytosis activity through nuclear factor kappa B activation. In addition, GSH significantly decreased LPS-induced ROS generation, which was associated with an activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/ heme oxygenease-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway. Our results suggest that GSH has potential ROS scavenging capacity via the induction of Nrf2-mediated HO-1, and immune-enhancing activity by regulation of M1-like macrophage polarization, indicating that GSH may be a useful strategy to increase the human defense system.
Acetaminophen sensitizing erastin-induced ferroptosis via modulation of Nrf2/heme oxygenase-1 signaling pathway in non-small-cell lung cancer
Growing evidence confirms that ferroptosis plays an important role in tumor growth inhibition. However, some non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines are less sensitive to erastin-induced ferroptotic cell death. Elucidating the mechanism of resistance of cancer cells to erastin-induced ferroptosis and increasing the sensitivity of cancer cells to erastin need to be addressed. In our experiment, erastin and acetaminophen (APAP) cotreatment inhibited NSCLC cell viability and promoted ferroptosis and apoptosis, accompanied with attenuation of glutathione and ectopic increases in lipid peroxides. Erastin and APAP promoted NSCLC cell death by regulating nucleus translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2); and the ferroptosis induced by erastin and APAP was abrogated by bardoxolone methyl (BM) with less generation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde. As a downstream gene of Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 expression decreased significantly with the cotreatment of erastin and APAP, which could be rescued by BM. In vivo experiment showed that the combination of erastin and APAP had a synergic therapeutic effect on xenograft of lung cancer. In short, the present study develops a new effective treatment for NSCLC by synergizing erastin and APAP to induce ferroptosis.
RPB5-mediating protein promotes cholangiocarcinoma tumorigenesis and drug resistance by competing with NRF2 for KEAP1 binding
Cancer cell survival depends on the balance between reactive oxygen species production and scavenging, which is mainly regulated by NRF2 during tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrated that deletion of RBP5-mediating protein (RMP) in an autonomous mouse model of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) delays tumor progression. RMP-overexpressing tumor cells exhibited enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress and apoptosis. Mechanistically, RMP competes with NRF2 for binding to the Kelch domain of KEAP1 via the E**E motif, leading to decreased NRF2 degradation via ubiquitination, thus increasing NRF2 nuclear translocation and downstream transactivation of antioxidant genes. This RMP-KEAP1-NRF2 axis promotes ICC tumorigenesis, metastasis and drug resistance. Consistent with these findings, the RMP level in human ICC is positively correlated with the protein level of NRF2 and is associated with poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: These findings reveal that RMP is involved in the oxidative stress defense program and could be exploited for targeted cancer therapies.
Endogenous ET-1 promotes ANP secretion through activation of COX2-L-PGDS-PPARγ signaling in hypoxic beating rat atria
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent stimulus for the secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and hypoxia stimulates the release of ET-1, which is involved in the regulation of atrial ANP secretion. However, the precise mechanism of endogenous ET-1 in the regulation of hypoxia-induced ANP secretion is unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the mechanism of hypoxia-induced endogenous ET-1 regulation of ANP secretion in isolated perfused hypoxic beating rat atria. The results of this study showed that acute hypoxia significantly stimulated ET-1 release and upregulated the expression of its type A as well as type B receptors (ETA and ETB receptors). Endogenous ET-1 induced by hypoxia markedly upregulated the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) through activation of its two receptors, leading to an increase in lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) expression and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) production. L-PGDS-derived PGD2 activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), ultimately promoting hypoxia-induced ANP secretion. Conversely, L-PGDS-derived PGD2 may in turn regulate L-PGDS expression by a nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated feedback mechanism. These results indicate that endogenous ET-1 induced by hypoxia promotes hypoxia-induced ANP secretion by activation of COX2-L-PGDS-PPARγ signaling in beating rat atria. In addition, the positive feedback loop between L-PGDS-derived PGD2 and L-PGDS expression induced by hypoxia is part of the mechanism of hypoxia-induced ANP secretion by endogenous ET-1.
Neuroprotective effects of an Nrf2 agonist on high glucose-induced damage in HT22 cells
Oxidative stress is the hallmark of diabetic encephalopathy, which may be caused by hyperglycaemic toxicity. We aimed to discover pharmacologic targets to restore redox homeostasis. We identified the transcription factor Nrf2 as such a target.
Effects of 2'-3'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone derived from green perilla on auricle thickness in chronic contact dermatitis model mice
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic contact dermatitis. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway, an in vivo antioxidant system, induces antioxidant enzymes. In our previous studies, we isolated 2',3'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone (DDC) from green perilla and identified it as a novel activator of the Nrf2-ARE pathway. We also discovered that it exerted cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress in PC12 cells. However, its effects on skin disease model animals in vivo remain unclear. In the present study, auricular thickness time-dependently increased with the repeated application of picryl chloride, and significant increases were observed from Day 2 in chronic contact hypersensitivity (cCHS) model mice. Histological changes, such as higher numbers of cells in the epidermis, were observed with increases in auricular thickness. The administration of DDC every two days from Day 6 suppressed the increases in auricular thickness and the number of scratching events in a dose-dependent manner. The expression levels of antioxidant enzymes increased in the mouse auricle 24 h after the administration of DDC. These results presume that DDC inhibits increases in auricular thickness in cCHS mice by up-regulating the expression of antioxidative enzymes through the activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway.