English: PET scan of a human brain with Alzhei...

As the boomer generation ages, it is probable that there will be more posts such as the one I saw this week from a friend on Facebook. Their plea was for suggestions and recommendations for a good solution to help alleviate the pain they were experiencing from inflammation.

Externally, inflammation can be recognized by redness, swelling and pain. Internally, it is a lot more difficult to recognize and may well go undetected for long periods of time.  The effects of inflammation can also range from minor to chronic. An example of a minor case of inflammation may include bacteria causing an infection such as from a splinter piercing the skin. The more serious chronic inflammation may be a common factor in many age-related diseases such as Diabetes, arthritis, heart disease, cancer or Alzheimer’s.

There are over 500 results on Pubmed.gov when searching for NRF2 and inflammation. A couple of examples of the positive role that NRF2 had on inflammation.

The first study we will highlight is one called “Transcription Factor Nrf2 Regulates Inflammation” which was published in the Journal of Molecular and Cellular Biology. This inflammation. study dates back to 2003 in which two groups of mice with pleurisy were tested. The one group was treated with a Nrf2 activator, cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor NS-398 the other group was not treated.  The conclusion of the study shows that the mice with elevated NRF2 had less inflammation than the mice that were not treated.

“Administration of 15d-PGJ into the pleural space of NS-398-treated wild-type mice largely counteracted both the decrease in PrxI and persistence of neutrophil recruitment. In contrast, these changes did not occur in the Nrf2-deficient mice. These results demonstrate that Nrf2 regulates the inflammation process downstream of 15d-PGJ by orchestrating the recruitment of inflammatory cells and regulating the gene expression within those cells.”

The following study “Nrf2 is essential for cholesterol crystal-induced inflammasome activation and exacerbation of atherosclerosis.” Published in the
European Journal of Immunology. shows the interaction between NRF2 and the inflammation-causing protein called inflammasome.

Quoting from the study, “Here we have identified the oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor NF-E2-related 2 (Nrf2) as an essential positive regulator of inflammasome activation and IL-1-mediated vascular inflammation. We show that cholesterol crystals, which accumulate in atherosclerotic plaques, represent an endogenous danger signal that activates Nrf2 and the NLRP3 inflammasome.”

So, in response to my friend looking for solutions to their inflammation concerns, we suggest researching further in Pubmed and other reputable journals as well as getting the advice of a healthcare professional.

Here are the latest Nrf2 Studies regarding inflammation: 


Aloperine suppresses allergic airway inflammation through NF-κB, MAPK, and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways in mice
Wang C, Choi YH, Xian Z, Zheng M, Piao H and Yan G
To explore the effects of aloperine (ALO) on allergic airway inflammation, we investigated whether its mechanism is related with NF-κB, MAPK, and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways. Histochemical staining and inflammatory cell count were used to observe lung histopathological changes in mice. ELISA was used to detect the content of inflammatory cytokines and IgE in the mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhale methacholine was measured by the plethysmography in conscious mice. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in lung tissues. The key proteins of MAPK, NF-κB, and Nrf2/HO-1 in lung tissues were quantitatively analyzed by Western blot. Finally, the in vitro effect of ALO on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was also evaluated. In the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma mouse model, ALO reduced the exudation and infiltration of inflammatory cells and suppressed goblet cell hyperplasia. ALO-treated asthmatic mice also decreased the protein levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-γ, and IgE in BALF and attenuated AHR. Furthermore, ALO inhibited the expression of key proteins of MAPK and NF-κB pathways, and increased the expression of Nrf2/HO-1 in OVA-challenged mice. Additional in vitro study has shown that ALO abrogates the macrophage production of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. Taken together, ALO attenuated allergic airway inflammation through regulating NF-κB, MAPK, and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways. The results suggest the utility of ALO as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of asthma.
Aqueous extract of Dipsacus asperoides suppresses lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses by inhibiting the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages
Park JY, Park SD, Koh YJ, Kim DI and Lee JH
Dipsaci Radix, which is the dried root of Dipsacus asperoides C. Y. Cheng and T. M. Ai (Dipsacaceae), is used to treat back pain and blood stasis syndrome in Korean traditional medicine.
Nepeta angustifolia Attenuates Responses to Vascular Inflammation in High Glucose-Induced Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Through Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction
Huang S, Liu Z, Liu H, Lee D, Wang J, Yuan R and Bin Li
The traditional folk medicine Nepeta angustifolia C. Y. Wu (NA) reportedly possesses various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihypoxia, and antifatigue effects. In this study, we evaluated the anti-vascular inflammation effects of N. angustifolia extract in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by high glucose (HG) as well as the underlying mechanisms and verified its activity in diabetic rats.
Anthocyanins As Modulators of Cell Redox-Dependent Pathways in Non-Communicable Diseases
Speciale A, Saija A, Bashllari R, Molonia MS, Muscara C, Occhiuto C, Cimino F and Cristani M
Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), mostly represented by cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic pulmonary diseases, cancers, and several chronic pathologies, are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality, and are mainly related to the occurrence of metabolic risk factors. Anthocyanins (ACNs) posses a wide spectrum of biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective, and chemopreventive properties, which are able to promote human health. Although ACNs present an apparent low bioavailability, their metabolites may play an important role in the in vivo protective effects observed. This article directly addresses the scientific evidences supporting that ACNs could be useful to protect human population against several NCDs not only acting as antioxidant but through their capability to modulate cell redox-dependent signaling. In particular, ACNs interact with the NF-κB and AP-1 signal transduction pathways, which respond to oxidative signals and mediate a proinflammatory effect, and the Nrf2/ARE pathway and its regulated cytoprotective proteins (GST, NQO, HO-1, etc.), involved in both cellular antioxidant defenses and elimination/inactivation of toxic compounds, so countering the alterations caused by conditions of chemical/oxidative stress. In addition, supposed crosstalks could contribute to explain the protective effects of ACNs in different pathological conditions characterized by an altered balance among these pathways. Thus, this review underlines the importance of specific nutritional molecules for human health and focuses on the molecular targets and the underlying mechanisms of ACNs against various diseases.
A novel synthetic small molecule DMFO targets Nrf2 in modulating proinflammatory/antioxidant mediators to ameliorate inflammation
Mathew G, Sharma A, Pickering RJ, Rosado CJ, Lemarie J, Mudgal J, Thambi M, Sebastian S, Jandeleit-Dahm KA, de Haan JB and Unnikrishnan MK
Inflammation is a protective immune response against invading pathogens, however, dysregulated inflammation is detrimental. As the complex inflammatory response involves multiple mediators, including the involvement of reactive oxygen species, concomitantly targeting proinflammatory and antioxidant check-points may be a more rational strategy. We report the synthesis and anti-inflammatory/antioxidant activity of a novel indanedione derivative DMFO. DMFO scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS) in in-vitro radical scavenging assays and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In acute models of inflammation (carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat paw and air pouch), DMFO effectively reduced paw oedema and leucocyte infiltration with an activity comparable to diclofenac. DMFO stabilised mast cells (MCs) in in-vitro A23187 and compound 48/80-induced assays. Additionally, DMFO stabilised MCs in an antigen (ovalbumin)-induced MC degranulation model in-vivo, without affecting serum IgE levels. In a model of chronic immune-mediated inflammation, Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis, DMFO reduced arthritic score and contralateral paw oedema, and increased the pain threshold with an efficacy comparable to diclofenac but without being ulcerogenic. Additionally, DMFO significantly reduced serum TNFα levels. Mechanistic studies revealed that DMFO reduced proinflammatory genes (IL1β, TNFα, IL6) and protein levels (COX2, MCP1), with a concurrent increase in antioxidant genes (NQO1, haem oxygenase 1 (HO-1), Glo1, Nrf2) and protein (HO-1) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Importantly, the anti-inflammatory/antioxidant effect on gene expression was absent in primary macrophages isolated from Nrf2 KO mice suggesting an Nrf2-targeted activity, which was subsequently confirmed using siRNA transfection studies in RAW macrophages. Therefore, DMFO is a novel, orally-active, safe (even at 2 g/kg p.o.), a small molecule which targets Nrf2 in ameliorating inflammation.
Involvement of the Cholinergic Parameters and Glial Cells in Learning Delay Induced by Glutaric Acid: Protection by N-Acetylcysteine
Rodrigues FS, de Zorzi VN, Funghetto MP, Haupental F, Cardoso AS, Marchesan S, Cardoso AM, Schinger MRC, Machado AK, da Cruz IBM, Duarte MMMF, Xavier LL, Furian AF, Oliveira MS, Santos ARS, Royes LFF and Fighera MR
Dysfunction of basal ganglia neurons is a characteristic of glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I), an autosomal recessive inherited neurometabolic disease characterized by deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) and accumulation of glutaric acid (GA). The affected patients present clinical manifestations such as motor dysfunction and memory impairment followed by extensive striatal neurodegeneration. Knowing that there is relevant striatal dysfunction in GA-I, the purpose of the present study was to verify the performance of young rats chronically injected with GA in working and procedural memory test, and whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) would protect against impairment induced by GA. Rat pups were injected with GA (5 μmol g body weight, subcutaneously; twice per day; from the 5th to the 28th day of life) and were supplemented with NAC (150 mg/kg/day; intragastric gavage; for the same period). We found that GA injection caused delay procedural learning; increase of cytokine concentration, oxidative markers, and caspase levels; decrease of antioxidant defenses; and alteration of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Interestingly, we found an increase in glial cell immunoreactivity and decrease in the immunoreactivity of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 7 (α7nAChR), and neuronal nuclei (NeuN) in the striatum. Indeed, NAC administration improved the cognitive performance, ROS production, neuroinflammation, and caspase activation induced by GA. NAC did not prevent neuronal death, however protected against alterations induced by GA on Iba-1 and GFAP immunoreactivities and AChE activity. Then, this study suggests possible therapeutic strategies that could help in GA-I treatment and the importance of the striatum in the learning tasks.
Itaconate: an emerging determinant of inflammation in activated macrophages
Yu XH, Zhang DW, Zheng XL and Tang CK
Macrophages play a central role in innate immunity as the first line of defense against pathogen infection. Upon exposure to inflammatory stimuli, macrophages rapidly respond and subsequently undergo metabolic reprogramming to substantially produce cellular metabolites, such as itaconate. As a derivate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, itaconate is derived from the decarboxylation of cis-aconitate mediated by immunoresponsive gene 1 in the mitochondrial matrix. It is well known that itaconate has a direct anti-microbial effect by inhibiting isocitrate lyase. Strikingly, two recent studies published in Nature showed that itaconate markedly decreases the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages and ameliorates sepsis and psoriasis in animal models, revealing a novel biological action of itaconate beyond its regular roles in anti-microbial defense. The mechanism for this anti-inflammatory effect has been proposed to involve the inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase, blockade of IκBζ translation, and activation of Nrf2. These intriguing discoveries provide a new explanation for how macrophages are switched from a pro- to an anti-inflammatory state to limit the damage and facilitate tissue repair under pro-inflammatory conditions. Thus, the emerging effect of itaconate as a crucial determinant of macrophage inflammation has important implications in further understanding cellular immunometabolism and developing future therapeutics for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this review, we focus on the roles of itaconate in controlling the inflammatory response during macrophage activation, providing a rationale for future investigation and therapeutic intervention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Autophagy Ablation in Adipocytes Induces Insulin Resistance and Reveals Roles for Lipid Peroxide and Nrf2 Signaling in Adipose-Liver Crosstalk
Cai J, Pires KM, Ferhat M, Chaurasia B, Buffolo MA, Smalling R, Sargsyan A, Atkinson DL, Summers SA, Graham TE and Boudina S
Autophagy is a homeostatic cellular process involved in the degradation of long-lived or damaged cellular components. The role of autophagy in adipogenesis is well recognized, but its role in mature adipocyte function is largely unknown. We show that the autophagy proteins Atg3 and Atg16L1 are required for proper mitochondrial function in mature adipocytes. In contrast to previous studies, we found that post-developmental ablation of autophagy causes peripheral insulin resistance independently of diet or adiposity. Finally, lack of adipocyte autophagy reveals cross talk between fat and liver, mediated by lipid peroxide-induced Nrf2 signaling. Our data reveal a role for autophagy in preventing lipid peroxide formation and its transfer in insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues.
Scutellarin alleviates blood-retina-barrier oxidative stress injury initiated by activated microglia cells during the development of diabetic retinopathy
Mei X, Zhang T, Ouyang H, Lu B, Wang Z and Ji L
The breakdown of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) is an early and typical event during the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Scutellarin (SC) is a natural flavonoid. This study aims to investigate the protection of SC from BRB damage via focusing on inhibiting microglia-initiated inflammation and subsequent oxidative stress injury. SC attenuated BRB breakdown and the reduced expression of claudin-1 and claudin-19 in STZ-induced diabetic mice. SC reduced microglia cells activation both in vivo and in vitro. The results of transendothelial/transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER/TER) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated dextran cell permeability assay showed that SC attenuated BRB damage induced by D-glucose (25 mM)-stimulated microglia BV2 cells. SC suppressed nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression induced by D-glucose (25 mM) in BV2 cells. SC decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2 both in vivo and in vitro. MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 reduced the D-glucose-induced NFκB nuclear accumulation and TNFα expression in BV2 cells. Next, SC improved the decreased expression of claudin-1 and claudin-19, the increased BRB damage and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and enhanced nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in TNFα-treated human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and APRE19 cells. Moreover, the SC-provided alleviation on BRB breakdown in STZ-induced diabetic mice was diminished in Nrf2 knock-out mice. In conclusion, SC alleviates BRB breakdown via abrogating retinal inflammatory responses and subsequent oxidative stress injury initiated by microglia cells that is activated by hyperglycemia during DR development.
Inhibition of nuclear thioredoxin aggregation attenuates PM-induced NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory responses
Zhu Z, Chen X, Sun J, Li Q, Lian X, Li S, Wang Y and Tian L
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) can induce oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production, which are central for the induction of PM-mediated adverse effects on public health. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling is essential for inflammation. The subcellular distribution of thioredoxin (Trx) is related to the activation of NF-κB, but the mechanism involved is unclear. In the current study, we focused on the relationship between the antioxidant Trx and NF-κB in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) after PM exposure. We inhibited the nuclear translocation of Trx by cHCEU (4-cyclohexyl-[3-(2-chloroethyl)ureido]benzene) and subsequently increased the transcriptional activity of Nrf2 to upregulate the expression of Trx by t-BHQ. Our data suggest that PM exposure induces the activation of NF-κB and the expression of the downstream proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in BEAS-2B cells. CHCEU alleviates inflammatory cytokines by blocking Trx nuclear translocation and inhibits the DNA binding activity of NF-κB. T-BHQ could promote the transcriptional activity of Nrf2 but failed to alleviate the production of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, the synergistic effect of t-BHQ and cHCEU on alleviating PM-induced inflammation is more effective than the use of cHCEU alone. Our findings characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms of proinflammatory responses induced by PM and show that the nuclear translocation and accumulation of Trx in nuclei play important roles in PM-induced NF-κB activation and proinflammatory responses.
The Novel Neuroprotective Compound KMS99220 Has an Early Anti-neuroinflammatory Effect via AMPK and HO-1, Independent of Nrf2
Lee JA, Kim HR, Kim J, Park KD, Kim DJ and Hwang O
We have previously reported a novel synthetic compound KMS99220 that prevented degeneration of the nigral dopaminergic neurons and the associated motor deficits, suggesting a neuroprotective therapeutic utility for Parkinson's disease. Microglia are closely associated with neuroinflammation, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of KMS99220 on the signaling involving AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the enzymes thought to regulate inflammation. KMS99220 was shown to elevate the enzyme activity of purified AMPK, and phosphorylation of cellular AMPK in BV2 microglia. It increased the level of HO-1, and this was attenuated by AMPK inhibitors. KMS99220 lowered phosphorylation of IκB, nuclear translocation of NFκB, induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and generation of nitric oxide in BV2 cells that had been challenged with lipopolysaccharide. This anti-inflammatory response involved HO-1, because both its pharmacological inhibition and knockdown of its expression abolished the response. The AMPK inhibitors also reversed the anti-inflammatory effects of KMS99220. The induction of HO-1 by KMS99220 occurred within 1 h, and this appeared not to involve the transcription factor Nrf2, because Nrf2 knockdown did not affect the compound's HO-1 inducing- and anti-inflammatory effects in this time window. These findings indicated that KMS99220 leads to AMPK-induced HO-1 expression in microglia, which in turn plays an important role in early anti-inflammatory signaling. Together with its neuroprotective property, KMS99220 may serve as a feasible therapeutic agent against neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.
Falcarinol Is a Potent Inducer of Heme Oxygenase-1 and Was More Effective than Sulforaphane in Attenuating Intestinal Inflammation at Diet-Achievable Doses
Stefanson AL and Bakovic M
Nuclear factor- (erythroid-derived 2) like 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of a battery of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1, Ho-1) and NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (Nqo1). The isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SF) is widely understood to be the most effective natural activator of the Nrf2 pathway. Falcarinol (FA) is a lesser studied natural compound abundant in medicinal plants as well as dietary plants from the family such as carrot. We evaluated the protective effects of FA and SF (5 mg/kg twice per day in CB57BL/6 mice) pretreatment for one week against acute intestinal and systemic inflammation. The phytochemical pretreatment effectively reduced the magnitude of intestinal proinflammatory gene expression (IL-6, Tnf/Tnfr, Inf, STAT3, and IL-10/IL-10r) with FA showing more potency than SF. FA was also more effective in upregulating Ho-1 at mRNA and protein levels in both the mouse liver and the intestine. FA but not SF attenuated plasma chemokine eotaxin and white blood cell growth factor GM-CSF, which are involved in the recruitment and stabilization of first-responder immune cells. Phytochemicals generally did not attenuate plasma proinflammatory cytokines. Plasma and intestinal lipid peroxidation was also not significantly changed 4 h after LPS injection; however, FA did reduce basal lipid peroxidation in the mesentery. Both phytochemical pretreatments protected against LPS-induced reduction in intestinal barrier integrity, but FA additionally reduced inflammatory cell infiltration even below negative control.
Reactive Oxygen Species as Regulators of MDSC-Mediated Immune Suppression
Ohl K and Tenbrock K
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) molecules are implicated in signal transduction pathways and thereby control a range of biological activities. Immune cells are constantly confronted with ROS molecules under both physiologic and pathogenic conditions. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immunosuppressive, immature myeloid cells and serve as major regulators of pathogenic and inflammatory immune responses. In addition to their own release of ROS, MDSCs often arise in oxidative-stress prone environments such as in tumors or during inflammation and infection. This evidently close relationship between MDSCs and ROS prompted us to summarize what is currently known about ROS signaling within MDSCs and to elucidate how MDSCs use ROS to modulate other immune cells. ROS not only activate anti-oxidative pathways but also induce transcriptional programs that regulate the fate and function of MDSCs. Furthermore, MDSCs release ROS molecules as part of a major mechanism to suppress T cell responses. Targeting redox-regulation of MDSCs thus presents a promising approach to cancer therapy and the role of redox-signaling in MDSCs in other disease states such as infection, inflammation and autoimmunity would appear to be well worth investigating.
A Novel Derivative of the Natural Product Danshensu Suppresses Inflammatory Responses to Alleviate Caerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis
Ren Z, Li H, Zhang M, Zhao Y, Fang X, Li X, Chen W, Zhang H, Wang Y, Pan LL and Sun J
Acute pancreatitis (AP), a common abdominal inflammatory disorder, is characterized by premature intracellular activation of digestive proteases within pancreatic acini and a consecutive systemic inflammatory response. Although the mechanism remains to be fully understood, inflammation is the main cause of pancreatic damage in AP. A novel compound [4-(2-acetoxy-3-((R)-3-(benzylthio)-1-methoxy-1-oxopropan-2-ylamino)-3-oxopropyl)-1,2-phenylene diacetate (DSC)], derived from danshensu, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties . However, its potential beneficial effect in AP has not been demonstrated. This study aimed to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of DSC in experimental AP in mice. We found that DSC suppressed inflammatory responses in AP by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Furthermore, treatment with DSC modulated the infiltration of neutrophils and the phenotypes of macrophages in mice induced with AP. Interestingly, we found that the expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its regulated antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which modulate inflammatory activities, was significantly increased in DSC-treated groups. Together, our findings demonstrate that DSC alleviates pancreatic inflammation and damage in AP by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB, STAT3, and NLRP3 inflammasome and modulating immune cell responses.
The Lipid Mediator Resolvin D1 Reduces the Skin Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Induced by UV Irradiation in Hairless Mice
Saito P, Melo CPB, Martinez RM, Fattori V, Cezar TLC, Pinto IC, Bussmann AJC, Vignoli JA, Georgetti SR, Baracat MM, Verri WA and Casagrande R
UV irradiation-induced oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to the development of skin diseases. Therefore, targeting oxidative stress and inflammation might contribute to reduce skin diseases. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) is a bioactive metabolite generated during inflammation to actively orchestrate the resolution of inflammation. However, the therapeutic potential of RvD1 in UVB skin inflammation remains undetermined, which was, therefore, the aim of the present study. The intraperitoneal treatment with RvD1 (3-100 ng/mouse) reduced UVB irradiation-induced skin edema, myeloperoxidase activity, matrix metalloproteinase 9 activity, and reduced glutathione depletion with consistent effects observed with the dose of 30 ng/mouse, which was selected to the following experiments. RvD1 inhibited UVB reduction of catalase activity, and hydroperoxide formation, superoxide anion production, and gp91phox mRNA expression. RvD1 also increased the Nrf2 and its downstream targets NQO1 and HO-1 mRNA expression. Regarding cytokines, RvD1 inhibited UVB-induced production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-33, TNF-α, TGF-β, and IL-10. These immuno-biochemical alterations by RvD1 treatment had as consequence the reduction of UVB-induced epidermal thickness, sunburn and mast cell counts, and collagen degradation. Therefore, RvD1 inhibited UVB-induced skin oxidative stress and inflammation, rendering this resolving lipid mediator as a promising therapeutic agent.


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