English: PET scan of a human brain with Alzhei...

As the boomer generation ages, it is probable that there will be more posts such as the one I saw this week from a friend on Facebook. Their plea was for suggestions and recommendations for a good solution to help alleviate the pain they were experiencing from inflammation.

Externally, inflammation can be recognized by redness, swelling and pain. Internally, it is a lot more difficult to recognize and may well go undetected for long periods of time.  The effects of inflammation can also range from minor to chronic. An example of a minor case of inflammation may include bacteria causing an infection such as from a splinter piercing the skin. The more serious chronic inflammation may be a common factor in many age-related diseases such as Diabetes, arthritis, heart disease, cancer or Alzheimer’s.

There are over 500 results on Pubmed.gov when searching for NRF2 and inflammation. A couple of examples of the positive role that NRF2 had on inflammation.

The first study we will highlight is one called “Transcription Factor Nrf2 Regulates Inflammation” which was published in the Journal of Molecular and Cellular Biology. This inflammation. study dates back to 2003 in which two groups of mice with pleurisy were tested. The one group was treated with a Nrf2 activator, cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor NS-398 the other group was not treated.  The conclusion of the study shows that the mice with elevated NRF2 had less inflammation than the mice that were not treated.

“Administration of 15d-PGJ into the pleural space of NS-398-treated wild-type mice largely counteracted both the decrease in PrxI and persistence of neutrophil recruitment. In contrast, these changes did not occur in the Nrf2-deficient mice. These results demonstrate that Nrf2 regulates the inflammation process downstream of 15d-PGJ by orchestrating the recruitment of inflammatory cells and regulating the gene expression within those cells.”

The following study “Nrf2 is essential for cholesterol crystal-induced inflammasome activation and exacerbation of atherosclerosis.” Published in the
European Journal of Immunology. shows the interaction between NRF2 and the inflammation-causing protein called inflammasome.

Quoting from the study, “Here we have identified the oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor NF-E2-related 2 (Nrf2) as an essential positive regulator of inflammasome activation and IL-1-mediated vascular inflammation. We show that cholesterol crystals, which accumulate in atherosclerotic plaques, represent an endogenous danger signal that activates Nrf2 and the NLRP3 inflammasome.”

So, in response to my friend looking for solutions to their inflammation concerns, we suggest researching further in Pubmed and other reputable journals as well as getting the advice of a healthcare professional.

Here are the latest Nrf2 Studies regarding inflammation: 


Resveratrol ameliorates sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in a pediatric rat model via Nrf2 signaling pathway
Wang Y, Feng F, Liu M, Xue J and Huang H
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a hyper-inflammation-induced abrupt loss of kidney function and has become a major public health problem. The cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of peritonitis in rat pups mimics the development of sepsis-induced pediatric AKI is pre-renal without morphological changes of the kidneys and high lethality. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound with low toxicity, has obvious anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to determine whether resveratrol alleviates pediatric AKI and investigated the potential mechanism. Thus, a CLP model of 17-18 day-old rat pups was used to mimic the development of sepsis-induced AKI in children. In the group treated with resveratrol, renal injury induced by CLP was alleviated with downregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 expression. Nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling is known to effectively inhibit inflammation, the present study found that resveratrol reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in kidney cells and induced the activation of Nrf2 signaling, including accumulation of nuclear Nrf2 and increase of the expression of Nrf2 target genes heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone) 1 (NQO1); this was confirmed by the induction of the expression of HO-1 and NQO1 by treatment of resveratrol and . Of note, knockdown of Nrf2 effectively abrogated the downregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β and KIM-1 expression induced by resveratrol . These results suggested that resveratrol ameliorates sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in a pediatric model of AKI via the Nrf2 signaling pathway.
Synergism between luteolin and sulforaphane in anti-inflammation
Rakariyatham K, Wu X, Tang Z, Han Y, Wang Q and Xiao H
Luteolin and sulforaphane are well-known food bioactives with anti-inflammatory properties. Herein, we determined their combinational effects in inhibiting inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Both luteolin and sulforaphane showed dose-dependent inhibition on LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) in the macrophages. The combined treatments led to a stronger inhibition on NO production compared to the singular treatments. Isobologram analysis confirmed that the combined treatments produced a synergy. Western blotting and ELISA showed that the combined treatment reduced the expression levels of pro-inflammatory proteins involving NF-κB pathway, and STAT3 activation, which regulated expression of other inflammatory proteins such as iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, and IL-1β. Moreover, the combination treatments reduced reactive oxygen species in cells and increased the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1, which are cellular antioxidant proteins. In conclusion, our findings support the notion that certain bioactive food components may act synergistically to produce enhanced health effects such as anti-inflammation.
Lipoic Acid Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Goto Kakizaki Rats by Reducing Oxidative Stress Through Nrf2 Activation
Sena CM, Cipriano MA, Botelho MF and Seiça RM
Prevention of hepatic fat accumulation may be an important approach for liver diseases due to the increased relevance of hepatic steatosis in this field. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the antioxidant α-lipoic acid (α-LA) on hepatic steatosis, hepatocellular function, and oxidative stress in a model of type 2 diabetes fed with a high fat diet (HFD). Goto-Kakizaki rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group received only a standard rat diet (control GK) including groups 2 (HFD), 3 (vehicle group), and 4 (α-LA group), which were given HFD, ad libitum during three months. Wistar rats are the non-diabetic control group. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, liver function, plasma and liver tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), liver GSH, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor E2 (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor-2 (Nrf2) levels were assessed in the different groups. Liver function was assessed using quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy, serum aspartate, and alanine aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, and bilirubin levels. Histopathologically steatosis and fibrosis were evaluated. Type 2 diabetic animals fed with HFD showed a marked hepatic steatosis and a diminished hepatic extraction fraction and both were fully prevented with α-LA. Plasma and liver tissue MDA and hepatic TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the HFD group when compared with the control group and significantly lower in the α-LA group. Systemic and hepatic cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum uric acid levels were higher in hyperlipidemic GK rats and fully prevented with α-LA. In addition, nuclear Nrf2 activity was significantly diminished in GK rats and significantly augmented after α-LA treatment. In conclusion, α-LA strikingly ameliorates steatosis in this animal model of diabetes fed with HFD by decrementing the inflammatory marker TNF-α and reducing oxidative stress. α-LA might be considered a useful therapeutic tool to prevent hepatic steatosis by incrementing antioxidant defense systems through Nrf2 and consequently decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation in type 2 diabetes.
Interleukin-17D and Nrf2 mediate initial innate immune cell recruitment and restrict MCMV infection
Seelige R, Saddawi-Konefka R, Adams NM, Picarda G, Sun JC, Benedict CA and Bui JD
Innate immune cells quickly infiltrate the site of pathogen entry and not only stave off infection but also initiate antigen presentation and promote adaptive immunity. The recruitment of innate leukocytes has been well studied in the context of extracellular bacterial and fungal infection but less during viral infections. We have recently shown that the understudied cytokine Interleukin (IL)-17D can mediate neutrophil, natural killer (NK) cell and monocyte infiltration in sterile inflammation and cancer. Herein, we show that early immune cell accumulation at the peritoneal site of infection by mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is mediated by IL-17D. Mice deficient in IL-17D or the transcription factor Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), an inducer of IL-17D, featured an early decreased number of innate immune cells at the point of viral entry and were more susceptible to MCMV infection. Interestingly, we were able to artificially induce innate leukocyte infiltration by applying the Nrf2 activator tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), which rendered mice less susceptible to MCMV infection. Our results implicate the Nrf2/IL-17D axis as a sensor of viral infection and suggest therapeutic benefit in boosting this pathway to promote innate antiviral responses.
Taurine: A Regulator of Cellular Redox-Homeostasis and Skeletal Muscle Function
Seidel U, Huebbe P and Rimbach G
Taurine is a non-proteinogenic ß-aminosulfonic acid. Important dietary sources of taurine are fish and seafood. Taurine interacts with ion channels, stabilizes membranes and regulates the cell volume. These actions confirm its high concentrations in excitable tissues like retina, neurons and muscles. Retinal degeneration, cardiomyopathy as well as skeletal muscle malfunction are evident in taurin e deficient phenotypes. There is evidence that taurine counteracts lipid peroxidation and increases cellular antioxidant defense in response to inflammation. In activated neutrophils taurine reacts with hypochloric acid to taurine chloramine (TauCl), which triggers the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-nuclear factor E2-related factor 1 (Keap1-Nrf2) pathway. Consequently, Nrf2 target genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) and catalase (CAT) are induced. Furthermore taurine may prevent an overload of reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly by an inhibition of ROS generation within the respiratory chain. Taurine affects mitochondrial bioenergetics and taurine deficient mice exhibit an impaired exercise performance. Moreover, some studies demonstrate that taurine enhances the glycogen repletion in the post-exercise recovery phase. In the case of taurine deficiency, many studies observed a phenotype known in muscle senescence and skeletal muscle disorders. Overall, taurine plays an important role in cellular redox homeostasis and skeletal muscle function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Paeonol attenuates ligation-induced periodontitis in rats by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis via regulating Nrf2/NF-κB/NFATc1 signaling pathway
Li J, Li Y, Pan S, Zhang L, He L and Niu Y
Paeonol is a natural phenolic compound in Moutan Cortex with multiple biological functions, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Recent evidence has proven that persistent inflammation, oxidative stress, along with nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling dysfunction in periodontium are the possible causes of alveolar bone resorption, and ultimately lead to periodontitis. The present study was designed to explore the protective effects of paeonol on ligation-induced periodontitis in rats, and investigate the possible mechanism. We found that treatment with paeonol (40, 80 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) for 7 days remarkably decreased the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand increased the expression of osteoprotegrin and inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. This function of paeonol might be correlated with its ability to reduce inflammatory factors (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and alleviate oxidative stress (SOD, MDA, GSH and ROS) in gingival tissues. Besides, paeonol increased Nrf2 activity. Silence of Nrf2 using specific siRNA diminished the inhibitory effect of paeonol on NF-κB p65 activation and aftedexpression, suggesting that Nrf2 was essential for protective effect of paeonol. These results showed that paeonol protected against periodontitis-aggravated osteoclastogenesis and alveolar bone lesion via regulating Nrf2/NF-κB/NFATc1 signaling pathway.
Skullcapflavone II inhibits osteoclastogenesis by regulating reactive oxygen species and attenuates the survival and resorption function of osteoclasts by modulating integrin signaling
Lee J, Son HS, Lee HI, Lee GR, Jo YJ, Hong SE, Kim N, Kwon M, Kim NY, Kim HJ, Lee YJ, Seo EK and Jeong W
Many bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis, are attributed to an increase in osteoclast number or activity; therefore, control of osteoclasts has significant clinical implications. This study shows how skullcapflavone II (SFII), a flavonoid with anti-inflammatory activity, regulates osteoclast differentiation, survival, and function. SFII inhibited osteoclastogenesis with decreased activation of MAPKs, Src, and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), which have been known to be redox sensitive. SFII decreased reactive oxygen species by scavenging them or activating nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and its effects were partially reversed by hydrogen peroxide cotreatment or Nrf2 deficiency. In addition, SFII attenuated survival, migration, and bone resorption, with a decrease in the expression of integrin β, Src, and p130 Crk-associated substrate, and the activation of RhoA and Rac1 in differentiated osteoclasts. Furthermore, SFII inhibited osteoclast formation and bone loss in an inflammation- or ovariectomy-induced osteolytic mouse model. These findings suggest that SFII inhibits osteoclastogenesis through redox regulation of MAPKs, Src, and CREB and attenuates the survival and resorption function by modulating the integrin pathway in osteoclasts. SFII has therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of bone diseases caused by excessive osteoclast activity.-Lee, J., Son, H. S., Lee, H. I., Lee, G.-R., Jo, Y.-J., Hong, S.-E., Kim, N., Kwon, M., Kim, N. Y., Kim, H. J., Lee, Y. J., Seo, E. K., Jeong, W. Skullcapflavone II inhibits osteoclastogenesis by regulating reactive oxygen species and attenuates the survival and resorption function of osteoclasts by modulating integrin signaling.
The autophagy receptor SQSTM1/p62 mediates anti-inflammatory actions of the selective NR3C1/glucocorticoid receptor modulator compound A (CpdA) in macrophages
Mylka V, Deckers J, Ratman D, De Cauwer L, Thommis J, De Rycke R, Impens F, Libert C, Tavernier J, Vanden Berghe W, Gevaert K and De Bosscher K
Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat inflammatory disorders; however, prolonged use of glucocorticoids results in side effects including osteoporosis, diabetes and obesity. Compound A (CpdA), identified as a selective NR3C1/glucocorticoid receptor (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) modulator, exhibits an inflammation-suppressive effect, largely in the absence of detrimental side effects. To understand the mechanistic differences between the classic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) and CpdA, we looked for proteins oppositely regulated in bone marrow-derived macrophages using an unbiased proteomics approach. We found that the autophagy receptor SQSTM1 but not NR3C1 mediates the anti-inflammatory action of CpdA. CpdA drives SQSTM1 upregulation by recruiting the NFE2L2 transcription factor to its promoter. In contrast, the classic NR3C1 ligand dexamethasone recruits NR3C1 to the Sqstm1 promoter and other NFE2L2-controlled gene promoters, resulting in gene downregulation. Both DEX and CpdA induce autophagy, with marked different autophagy characteristics and morphology. Suppression of LPS-induced Il6 and Ccl2 genes by CpdA in macrophages is hampered upon Sqstm1 silencing, confirming that SQSTM1 is essential for the anti-inflammatory capacity of CpdA, at least in this cell type. Together, these results demonstrate how off-target mechanisms of selective NR3C1 ligands may contribute to a more efficient anti-inflammatory therapy.
Sinapic acid ameliorates bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in rats
Raish M, Ahmad A, Ahmad Ansari M, Ahad A, Al-Jenoobi FI, Al-Mohizea AM, Khan A and Ali N
Pulmonary fibrosis is a multifaceted disease with high mortality and morbidity, and it is commonly nonresponsive to conventional therapy.
Icariin and icaritin recover UVB-induced photoaging by stimulating Nrf2/ARE and reducing AP-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways: a comparative study on UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes
Hwang E, Lin P, Ngo HTT, Gao W, Wang YS, Yu HS and Yi TH
Icariin (ICA) and icaritin (ICT) exhibit many pharmacological functions including anti-osteoporosis, anti-cardiovascular, and anti-cancer activities; however, there are few comprehensive studies that track the detailed effects on UVB-induced photoaging. The recovery effects of ICA and ICT were investigated in UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes (HaCaTs). The results indicated that ICT and ICA showed strong radical scavenging activity, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity of ICT was superior. UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression was blocked by ICA via the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein 1 (MAPK/AP-1), which directly reduced extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. ICT activated nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) to improve the anti-oxidative stress capacity and suppress nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, decreasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein, and inflammatory cytokines induced ECM degrading enzyme secretion. Moreover, ICT was more advantageous to improve transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and procollagen type I expression than ICA, promoting the synthesis of collagen. Therefore, ICA and ICT have potential to treat UVB-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and photoaging, and will be posited as a novel strategy to alleviate photodamage.
Oxidative stress responses in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke and vapor from tobacco- and nicotine-containing products
Munakata S, Ishimori K, Kitamura N, Ishikawa S, Takanami Y and Ito S
The use of novel tobacco- and nicotine-containing vapor products that do not combust tobacco leaves is on the rise worldwide. The emissions of these products typically contain lower numbers and levels of potentially harmful chemicals compared with conventional cigarette smoke. These vapor products may therefore elicit fewer adverse biological effects. We compared the effects of emissions from different types of such products, i.e., our proprietary novel tobacco vapor product (NTV), a commercially available heat-not-burn tobacco product (HnB), and e-cigarette (E-CIG), and a combustible cigarette in a human bronchial epithelial cell line. The aqueous extract (AqE) of the test product was prepared by bubbling the produced aerosol into medium. Cells were exposed to the AqEs of test products, and then glutathione oxidation, Nrf2 activation, and secretion of IL-8 and GM-CSF were examined. We found that all endpoints were similarly perturbed by exposure to each AqE, but the effective dose ranges were different between cigarette smoke and the tobacco- and nicotine-containing vapors. These results demonstrate that the employed assays detect differences between product exposures, and thus may be useful to understand the relative potential biological effects of tobacco- and nicotine-containing products.
Effects of Ulinastatin on myocardial oxidative stress and inflammation in severely burned rats
He F, Song Y, Ying WJ, Jin XY, Wang ZX, Su JD and Wang GY
By constructing the severe burns model in rat, we explored the effects of different doses of Ulinastatin (UTI) on protecting myocardium from oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction.
Molecular Mechanisms of Lithium Action: Switching the Light on Multiple Targets for Dementia Using Animal Models
Kerr F, Bjedov I and Sofola-Adesakin O
Lithium has long been used for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, due to its robust beneficial effect as a mood stabilizing drug. Lithium's effectiveness for improving neurological function is therefore well-described, stimulating the investigation of its potential use in several neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's (HD) diseases. A narrow therapeutic window for these effects, however, has led to concerted efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms of lithium action in the brain, in order to develop more selective treatments that harness its neuroprotective potential whilst limiting contraindications. Animal models have proven pivotal in these studies, with lithium displaying advantageous effects on behavior across species, including worms (), zebrafish (), fruit flies () and rodents. Due to their susceptibility to genetic manipulation, functional genomic analyses in these model organisms have provided evidence for the main molecular determinants of lithium action, including inhibition of inositol monophosphatase (IMPA) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). Accumulating pre-clinical evidence has indeed provided a basis for research into the therapeutic use of lithium for the treatment of dementia, an area of medical priority due to its increasing global impact and lack of disease-modifying drugs. Although lithium has been extensively described to prevent AD-associated amyloid and tau pathologies, this review article will focus on generic mechanisms by which lithium preserves neuronal function and improves memory in animal models of dementia. Of these, evidence from worms, flies and mice points to GSK-3 as the most robust mediator of lithium's neuro-protective effect, but it's interaction with downstream pathways, including Wnt/β-catenin, CREB/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NFκB), have identified multiple targets for development of drugs which harness lithium's neurogenic, cytoprotective, synaptic maintenance, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and protein homeostasis properties, in addition to more potent and selective GSK-3 inhibitors. Lithium, therefore, has advantages as a multi-functional therapy to combat the complex molecular pathology of dementia. Animal studies will be vital, however, for comparative analyses to determine which of these defense mechanisms are most required to slow-down cognitive decline in dementia, and whether combination therapies can synergize systems to exploit lithium's neuro-protective power while avoiding deleterious toxicity.
Triptriolide Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Injury by Nrf2 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways
Yang YQ, Yan XT, Wang K, Tian RM, Lu ZY, Wu LL, Xu HT, Wu YS, Liu XS, Mao W, Xu P and Liu B
Nrf2 (Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2 Related Factor 2) transcription factor not only regulates oxidative stress response, but also represses inflammation by regulating cytokines production and cross-talking with NF-κB signaling pathways. Nrf2 plays an essential role in liver injury induced by oxidative stress and inflammation. Triptriolide (T11) is a minor component of Hook F. (TwHF), which can be obtained by hydrolysis reaction of triptolide (T9). The major purpose of this study is to clarify the regulating effects of T11 on oxidative stress and inflammation and . LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to verify the regulating effects of T11 on oxidative stress (ROS and Nrf2 signaling pathway) and inflammatory cytokines production (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β). The antioxidant responsive element (ARE) luciferase assay was employed to evaluate Nrf2 activation effect of T11 in HEK-293T cells. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced acute liver injury (ALI) in BALB/c mice were used to study the protective effects (ALT, AST, MDA, SOD, histopathology and neutrophils/macrophages filtration) and the underlying protection mechanisms of ALI amelioration (Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathway) of T11. Firstly, the results showed that T11 can not only effectively decrease the productions of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β), ROS and NO in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, but also further significantly increase the activity of Nrf2 in HEK-293T cells. Secondly, the results suggested that T11 could dramatically decrease the oxidative stress responses (SOD and MDA) and inflammation (histopathology, neutrophils/macrophages filtration, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β production) in LPS-induced ALI in BALB/c mice. Finally, the results implied that T11 could dramatically increase Nrf2 protein expression and decrease p-TAK1, p-IκBα and NF-κB protein expression both and In conclusion, our findings indicated that T11 could alleviate LPS induced oxidative stress and inflammation by regulating Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathways and , which offers a novel insights for the application of TwHF in clinical.
Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway by Nardochinoid C Inhibits Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages
Luo JF, Shen XY, Lio CK, Dai Y, Cheng CS, Liu JX, Yao YD, Yu Y, Xie Y, Luo P, Yao XS, Liu ZQ and Zhou H
The roots and rhizomes of have neuroprotection and cardiovascular protection effects. However, the specific mechanism of is not yet clear. Nardochinoid C (DC) is a new compound with new skeleton isolated from and this study for the first time explored the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effect of DC. The results showed that DC significantly reduced the release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E (PGE) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells. The expression of pro-inflammatory proteins including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were also obviously inhibited by DC in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Besides, the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were also remarkably inhibited by DC in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. DC also suppressed inflammation indicators including COX-2, PGE, TNF-α, and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated THP-1 macrophages. Furthermore, DC inhibited the macrophage M1 phenotype and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Mechanism studies showed that DC mainly activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, increased the level of anti-oxidant protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and thus produced the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, which were abolished by Nrf2 siRNA and HO-1 inhibitor. These findings suggested that DC could be a new Nrf2 activator for the treatment and prevention of diseases related to inflammation and oxidative stress.


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