Systemic activation of Nrf2 pathway in Parkinson's disease
Preclinical studies underlined the relevance of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor pathway in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD).
Neuroprotective effects of protocatechuic aldehyde through PLK2/p-GSK3β/Nrf2 signaling pathway in both and models of Parkinson's disease
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage are closely related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The pharmacological mechanism of protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA) for PD treatment have retained unclear. The purposes of the present study were to clarify the neuroprotective effects of post-treatment of PCA for PD treatment by mitigating mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage, and to further determine whether its effects were mediated by the polo-like kinase 2/phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 β/nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (PLK2/p-GSK3β/Nrf2) pathways. We found that PCA improved 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced behavioral deficits and dopaminergic cell loss. Moreover, PCA increased the expressions of PLK2, p-GSK3β and Nrf2, following the decrease of α-synuclein (α-Syn) in MPTP-intoxicated mice. Cell viability was increased and the apoptosis rate was reduced by PCA in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide (MPP)-incubated cells. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial complex I activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in MPP-incubated cells were also ameliorated by treatment with PCA. The neuroprotective effects of PCA were abolished by inhibition or knockdown of PLK2, whereas overexpression of PLK2 strengthened the protection of PCA. Furthermore, GSK3β and Nrf2 were involved in PCA-induced protection. These results indicated that PCA has therapeutic effects on PD by the PLK2/p-GSK3β/Nrf2 pathway.
Nrf2/ARE Pathway as a Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Parkinson Diseases
Instead of the progress in the understanding of etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), effective methods to prevent the progression of the disease have not been developed and only symptomatic treatment is currently possible. One of possible pathways to slow the progression of the disease is protection of dopaminergic neurons by maintaining mitochondrial quality control in neuron cells. Recent studies showed that the most promising target for pharmacological effects on mitochondria is the Nrf2/ARE signaling cascade. It participates in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis, which is provided by an optimal ratio in the processes of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy, as well as the optimal ratio of ROS production and ROS scavenging. Nrf2 activators are capable of modulating these processes, maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis in neurons. In addition, Nrf2 can synergistically interact with other transcription factors, for example, PGC-1a in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and YY1 with the increase of antioxidant defense. All this makes Nrf2 an optimal target for drugs that could support the mitochondrial quality control, which, in combination with antioxidant protection, can significantly slow down the pathogenesis of PD. Some of these compounds have undergone laboratory studies and are at the stage of clinical trials now.
Astragaloside IV ameliorates motor deficits and dopaminergic neuron degeneration via inhibiting neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in a Parkinson's disease mouse model
Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are the key and early events during the pathological process of Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, therapeutic intervention to regulate oxidative stress and neuroinflammation would be an effective strategy to alleviate the progression of PD. Astragaloside IV, the main active component isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties in neurodegeneration diseases, however, the molecular mechanisms of Astragaloside IV in the pathology of PD are still unclear. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of Astragaloside IV of PD on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice model and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglia cells. Our results showed Astragaloside IV significantly alleviated behavioral impairments and dopaminergic neuron degeneration induced by MPTP. Also, Astragaloside IV inhibited microglia activation and reduced the oxidative stress of MPTP mouse model. In addition, Astragaloside IV significantly inhibited NFκB mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation and activated Nrf2 both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, Astragaloside IV lessened reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in LPS-induced BV2 microglia cells remarkably. These findings demonstrate that Astragaloside IV protects dopaminergic neuron from neuroinflammation and oxidative stress which are largely dependent upon activation of the Nrf2 pathways and suppression of NFκB/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway. Therefore, Astragaloside IV is a promising neuroprotective agent that should be further developed for neurodegeneration diseases.
Crosstalk between Nrf2 signaling and mitochondrial function in Parkinson's disease
Search for a definitive cure for neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease (PD) has met with little success. Mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated oxidative stress precede characteristic loss of dopamine-producing neurons from the midbrain in PD. The majority of PD cases are classified as sporadic (sPD) with an unknown etiology, whereas mutations in a handful of genes cause monogenic form called familial (fPD). Both sPD and fPD is characterized by proteinopathy and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to increased oxidative stress. These pathophysiological mechanisms create a vicious cycle feeding into each other, ultimately tipping the neurons to its demise. Effect of iron accumulation and dopamine oxidation adds an additional dimension to mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptotic pathways affected. Nrf2 is a redox-sensitive transcription factor which regulates basal as well as inducible expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins involved in xenobiotic detoxification. Recent advances, however, shows a multifaceted role for Nrf2 in the regulation of genes connected with inflammatory response, metabolic pathways, protein homeostasis, iron management, and mitochondrial bioenergetics. Here we review the role of mitochondria and oxidative stress in the PD etiology and the potential crosstalk between Nrf2 signaling and mitochondrial function in PD. We also make a case for the development of therapeutics that safely activates Nrf2 pathway in halting the progression of neurodegeneration in PD patients.
Tricetin protects against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in Parkinson's disease model by activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway and preventing mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway
Apoptosis of DA neurons is a contributing cause of disability and death for Parkinson's disease (PD). In this experiment, the neuroprotective effect of Tricetin was examined in PD models both in vitro and in vivo. The results suggested that 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity was accompanied by an increase in ROS generation, an increase in caspase-3 protein activity, an increase in Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, but the pretreatment with Tricetin significantly improved cell viability and suppressed mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, Tricetin also induced the protein expression of Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and its transcriptional activation, resulting in the up-regulated expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which conferred neuroprotection against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative damage. Results from molecular docking indicated that Tricetin could be a potent competitive inhibitor of the Keap1-Nrf2 Protein Protein Interaction (PPI). Finally, in vivo findings were confirmed in the 6-OHDA-PD C. elegans model. Thus, Tricetin may be an attractive therapeutic candidate for the neuroprotection.
Chlorpyrifos activates cell pyroptosis and increases susceptibility on oxidative stress-induced toxicity by miR-181/SIRT1/PGC-1α/Nrf2 signaling pathway in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: Implication for association between chlorpyrifos and Parkinson's disease
The insecticide exposure has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we used a most widely used cell line in study of PD, the SH-SY5Y cells, to investigate mechanisms of chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced cell toxicity and the possible roles of cell pyroptosis and oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells, as well as role of miR-181/SIRT1/PGC-1α/Nrf2 signaling pathway in this process.
Sulforaphane prevents PC12 cells from oxidative damage via the Nrf2 pathway
The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of sulforaphane (SFN) on 1‑methyl‑4‑phenyl pyridine ion (MPP+)‑induced cytotoxicity and to investigate its possible mechanisms.
In Vitro and In Vivo Neuroprotective Effects of Stellettin B Through Anti-Apoptosis and the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway
Pharmaceutical agents for halting the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) are lacking. The current available medications only relieve clinical symptoms and may cause severe side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel drug candidates for PD. In this study, we demonstrated the neuroprotective activity of stellettin B (SB), a compound isolated from marine sponges. We showed that SB could significantly protect SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA-induced cellular damage by inhibiting cell apoptosis and oxidative stress through PI3K/Akt, MAPK, caspase cascade modulation and Nrf2/HO-1 cascade modulation, respectively. In addition, an in vivo study showed that SB reversed 6-OHDA-induced a locomotor deficit in a zebrafish model of PD. The potential for developing SB as a candidate drug for PD treatment is discussed.
Higher urate in LRRK2 mutation carriers resistant to Parkinson disease
LRRK2 mutations, the most common genetic cause of Parkinson disease (PD), display incomplete penetrance, indicating the importance of other genetic and environmental influences on disease pathogenesis in LRRK2 mutation carriers. The present study investigates whether urate, an antioxidant, Nrf2 activator, and inverse risk factor for idiopathic PD, is one such candidate biomarker of PD risk modulation in pathogenic LRRK2 mutation carriers.
Neuroprotective Effect of β-Lapachone in MPTP-Induced Parkinson's Disease Mouse Model: Involvement of Astroglial p-AMPK/Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathways
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta. In the present study, we investigated whether β-Lapachone (β-LAP), a natural naphthoquinone compound isolated from the lapacho tree (Tabebuia avellanedae), elicits neuroprotective effects in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model. β-LAP reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive fiber loss induced by MPTP in the dorsolateral striatum, and alleviated motor dysfunction as determined by the rotarod test. In addition, β-LAP protected against MPTP-induced loss of TH positive neurons, and upregulated B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (Bcl-2) expression in the substantia nigra. Based on previous reports on the neuroprotective role of nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated whether β-LAP induces upregulation of the Nrf2-hemeoxygenae-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway molecules in MPTP-injected mouse brains. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses indicated that β-LAP increased HO-1 expression in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. Moreover, β-LAP increased the nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of Nrf2, and the phosphorylation of upstream adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). β-LAP also increased the localization of p-AMPK and Nrf2 in astrocytes. Collectively, our data suggest that β-LAP exerts neuroprotective effect in MPTP-injected mice by upregulating the p-AMPK/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways in astrocytes.
Neuroprotective Effects of a Traditional Multi-Herbal Medicine Kyung-Ok-Ko in an Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease: Inhibition of MAPKs and NF-κB Pathways and Activation of Keap1-Nrf2 Pathway
Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), a traditional multi-herbal medicine, has been widely used in Oriental medicine as a restorative that can enforce vitality of whole organs and as a medicine that can treat age-related symptoms including lack of vigor and weakened immunity. However, the beneficial effect of KOK on neurological diseases such as Parkinson's diseases (PD) is largely unknown. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the protective effect of KOK on neurotoxicity in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD. Pre-treatment with KOK at 1 or 2 g/kg/day (p.o.) showed significant mitigating effects on neurological dysfunction (motor and welfare) based on pole, rotarod, and nest building tests. It also showed effects on survival rate. These positive effects of KOK were related to inhibition of loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons, reduction of MitoSOX activity, increased apoptotic cells, microglia activation, and upregulation of inflammatory factors [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide], and reduced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and/or striatum after MPTP intoxication. Interestingly, these effects of KOK against MPTP neurotoxicity were associated with inhibition of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways along with up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathways in SNpc and/or striatum. Collectively, our findings suggest that KOK might be able to mitigate neurotoxicity in MPTP-induced mouse model of PD via multi-effects, including anti-neuronal and anti-BBB disruption activities through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Therefore, KOK might have potential for preventing and/or treating PD.
When safeguarding goes wrong: Impact of oxidative stress on protein homeostasis in health and neurodegenerative disorders
Cellular redox status is an established player in many different cellular functions. The buildup of oxidants within the cell is tightly regulated to maintain a balance between the positive and negative outcomes of cellular oxidants. Proteins are highly sensitive to oxidation, since modification can cause widespread unfolding and the formation of toxic aggregates. In response, cells have developed highly regulated systems that contribute to the maintenance of both the global redox status and protein homeostasis at large. Changes to these systems have been found to correlate with aging and age-related disorders, such as neurodegenerative pathologies. This raises intriguing questions as to the source of the imbalance in the redox and protein homeostasis systems, their interconnectivity, and their role in disease progression. Here we focus on the crosstalk between the redox and protein homeostasis systems in neurodegenerative diseases, specifically in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and ALS. We elaborate on some of the main players of the stress response systems, including the master regulators of oxidative stress and the heat shock response, Nrf2 and Hsf1, which are essential features of protein folding, and mediators of protein turnover. We illustrate the elegant mechanisms used by these components to provide an immediate response, including protein plasticity controlled by redox-sensing cysteines and the recruitment of naive proteins to the redox homeostasis array that act as chaperons in an ATP-independent manner.
Inhalation of hydrogen gas elevates urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanine in Parkinson's disease
Hyposmia is one of the earliest and the most common symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). The benefits of hydrogen water on motor deficits have been reported in animal PD models and PD patients, but the effects of hydrogen gas on PD patients have not been studied. We evaluated the effect of inhalation of hydrogen gas on olfactory function, non-motor symptoms, activities of daily living, and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanine (8-OHdG) levels by a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with an 8-week washout period in 20 patients with PD. Patients inhaled either ~1.2-1.4% hydrogen-air mixture or placebo for 10 minutes twice a day for 4 weeks. Inhalation of low dose hydrogen did not significantly influence the PD clinical parameters, but it did increase urinary 8-OHdG levels by 16%. This increase in 8-OHdG is markedly less than the over 300% increase in diabetes, and is more comparable to the increase after a bout of strenuous exercise. Although increased reactive oxygen species is often associated with toxicity and disease, they also play essential roles in mediating cytoprotective cellular adaptations in a process known as hormesis. Increases of oxidative stress by hydrogen have been previously reported, along with its ability to activate the Nrf2, NF-κB pathways, and heat shock responses. Although we did not observe any beneficial effect of hydrogen in our short trial, we propose that the increased 8-OHdG and other reported stress responses from hydrogen may indicate that its beneficial effects are partly or largely mediated by hormetic mechanisms. The study was approved by the ethics review committee of Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (approval number 2015-0295). The clinical trial was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network (identifier UMIN000019082).
Hydralazine Protects Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons From MPP and MPTP Induced Neurotoxicity: Roles of Nrf2-ARE Signaling Pathway
Although the pathogenic mechanisms of Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unclear, ample empirical evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is known to activate several antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven antioxidative genes that prevents oxidative stress and . Moreover, it was documented that hydralazine is a potent Nrf2 activator. In this study, we tested whether hydralazine can attenuate 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)- induced neurotoxicity and by activating Nrf2 and its downstream network of antioxidative genes. We found that treatment with hydralazine attenuated MPP or HO-induced loss of cell viability in human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). In addition, hydralazine significantly promoted the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, and upregulated the expression of its downstream antioxidative genes. Further, knockout of Nrf2 abolished the protection conferred by hydralazine on MPP -induced cell death. Similar findings were observed . Before, during, and after MPTP 30 mg/kg (i.p.) administration for 7 days, the mice were given hydralazine (Hyd) 51.7 mg/kg per day by oral gavage for 3 weeks. Oral administration of hydralazine ameliorated oxidative stress, MPTP-induced behavioral disorder, and loss of neurons of dopaminergic system in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum, all of which were attributed to its ability to activate the Nrf2-ARE pathway. Hydralazine increased the migration of Nrf2 to the nucleus in dopaminergic neurons, enhanced the expression of its downstream antioxidative genes. Together, these datasets show that the Nrf2-ARE pathway mediates the protective effects of hydralazine on Parkinson's disease.