Is Tylenol an Effective or Risky Nrf2 Activator?

Is Tylenol an Effective or Risky Nrf2 Activator?

Tylenol rapid release pills

Tylenol rapid release pills (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Tylenol is a brand name the US public is well aware of, (elsewhere is it commonly known as Paracetamol). It is advertised as a pain killer, fever reducer and commonly used to reduce the symptoms of allergies, cold, coughs and flu. As far as pain reliever market goes, Tylenol is number one with about 25% of the market share. The main ingredient of Tylenol is Acetaminophen/Paracetamol (APAP), although it also contains diphenhydramine. It has other ingredients including Caffeine.

Does Acetaminophen (Main ingredient in Tylenol) Activate NRF2?

There are studies on Pubmed that do confirm the NRF2 activation abilities of acetaminophen. For instance this quote. “Nrf2 can be activated via the direct modification of cysteine residues located within the intervening region of Keap1, but also via the substantial reduction of glutathione without the requirement for direct modification of Keap1. It is possible that both of these mechanisms contribute to the activation of Nrf2 by acetaminophen.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18785192

Another study published in the Journal of Hepatology shows that acetaminophen administration triggers Nrf2 Nuclear Translocation in vivo. “We show that acetaminophen can initiate nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in vivo, with maximum levels reached after 1 hour, in a dose dependent manner, at doses below those causing overt liver damage.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15122755

What are the risks of using Tylenol, or other acetaminophen based products as a NRF2 Activator?

Generally, acetaminophen is considered a well tolerated medicine when the correct doses are administered, but according to Drugs.com the following side effects may occur from consuming acetaminophen. When last did you see a list of side effects like this associated with natural NRF2 activators such as broccoli, strawberries or even NRF2 activator products made from botanical products?

  • Hepatic: Alcoholic patients may develop hepatotoxicity after even modest doses of acetaminophen. In healthy patients, approximately 15 grams of acetaminophen is necessary to deplete liver glutathione stores by 70% within a 70 kg person. However, hepatotoxicity has been reported following smaller doses.
  • Gastrointestinal: Gastrointestinal side effects have included nausea (34%) and vomiting (15%).
  • Renal: Renal side effects are rare and have included acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis, and interstitial nephritis.
  • Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity side effects including anaphylaxis and fixed drug eruptions have been reported rarely in collaboration with acetaminophen use.
  • Hematologic: Hematologic side effects including rare cases of thrombocytopenia associated with acetaminophen.
  • Dermatologic: Dermatologic side effects including erythematous skin rashes associated with acetaminophen have been reported, but are rare.
  • Respiratory: Respiratory side effects have included dyspnea and a case of acetaminophen-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.
  • Cardiovascular: Cardiovascular side effects including hypertension and hypo tension have been reported following the administration of acetaminophen.
  • Metabolic: Metabolic side effects have included hypokalemia. Metabolic side effects including metabolic acidosis have been reported following a massive overdose of acetaminophen.
  • Nervous system: Nervous system side effects associated with acetaminophen have included headache (10%), insomnia (7%), and fatigue.
  • Musculoskeletal: Musculoskeletal side effects associated with acetaminophen have included muscle spasms and trismus.
  • Psychiatric: Psychiatric side effects associated with acetaminophen have included anxiety.

Conclusion:

Although Tylenol is the largest brand when it comes to pain killers it is not recommended that acetaminophen be used for the purposes of NRF2 activation. There are too many side effects that are not associated with other NRF2 activation products or foods. In fact studies recommend natural NRF2 activators to cleanse the liver of the toxicity caused by acetaminophen. As discussed in the following study.

“In conclusion, our results demonstrate for the first time that sauchinone protects the liver from APAP-induced intoxication by activating Nrf2, and provide important information on the pharmacological mechanism and the potential application of sauchinone for the prevention and/treatment of liver intoxication.” Journal of Pharmacology Aug 2011

This article is for educational purposes only. Discuss your individual medical conditions with a qualified health care professional.

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    Nrf2 and Sports Endurance: Are you Born to Run?

    Nrf2 and Sports Endurance: Are you Born to Run?

    NYC Marathon 2008 - the winner! Brasil

    NYC Marathon 2008 – the winner! Brasil (Photo credit: Marcos Vasconcelos Photography)

    Are you born to run? It’s that time of year to focus on goals to achieve or resolutions to keep. It doesn’t matter if you are professional athlete or just a weekend warrior, we all want to improve our performance. A research study conducted by Physiological Genomics shows the role of NRF2 in high endurance athletic activity.

    The study discovered that elite endurance athletes such as marathon runners and high endurance athletes were more likely to have higher levels of the NRF2 gene than elite sprinters. Even those that would not be considered elite endurance athletes showed higher NRF2 genetic variations when compared to sprinters, although the difference was not as stark.

    Future studies will need to be undertaken to establish a cause-effect relationship. Does the existence of higher NRF2 activation improve athletic performance or vice versa?

    The researchers of this particular study investigated the NRF2 gene because they followed previous studies which have shown that NRF2 may play a role in endurance performance for the following reasons:

    • Nrf2 helps produce new mitochondria. Mitochondria are key cellular structures that produces energy within the cells.
    • Nrf2 is a powerful reducer of the harmful side effects of oxidation and inflammation, which increases during exercise. What was interesting in this study is that it seems to indicate that NRF2 protects the body more from the higher strain and damage caused by the increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response that occurs with acute exercise.

    The Study
    This study closely examined 155 elite track and field athletes. These athletes had competed in either national or international track and field competitions. The group was divided into either an endurance group (10,000 meters and marathon runners) or a sprint group (100- and 200-meter and long jump). The control group consisted of 240 non-athletic healthy individuals.

    The study discovered that in particular, two variations in the NRF2 gene (NRF2 A allele and NRF2 C/T genotype) occurred more often in endurance athletes than in sprinters.

    “So,” concludes Eynon (the researcher in this study), “some of us are truly born to run.”

    For more information on the NRF2 Endurance Study: http://jap.physiology.org/content/107/1/76.full

     

     

     

    Early Flu Season is Here: How Can Nrf2 Help?

    Early Flu Season is Here: How Can Nrf2 Help?

    English: Transmission electron micrograph of i...

    It seems evident from news sites and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that there has been a significant increase in flu activity across the United States.  You can track the progress of national flu activity using the free CDC  iPad  Influenza Application  Tool for Clinicians and Health Care Professionals application. The CDC recommends that everyone 6 months and older get a flu vaccine each year. They recommend in particular that high risk individuals get vaccinated, including those with respiratory medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, and those with lung disease. Also pregnant women and those 65 years old and older. While it is impossible to predict when the flu season will peak, it appears that January and February are typically the worst months in the year.

    This begs the question as to whether those with healthy NRF2 activation have better protection against Influenza.

    There are 4 Pubmed articles that investigate this topic, three of which will be referenced here.

    Nrf2 protects human alveolar epithelial cells against injury induced by influenza A virus

    The conclusion from this first study is as follows:”Our results indicate that IAV (influenza A Virus) induces alveolar epithelial injury and that Nrf2 protects these cells from the cytopathic effects of IAV likely by increasing the expression of antioxidant genes. Identifying the pathways involved in protecting cells from injury during influenza infection may be particularly important for developing new therapeutic strategies.”

    Nrf2 expression modifies influenza A entry and replication in nasal epithelial cells

    This study is very interesting. Here are a couple of quotes from the abstract, “Nrf2 knockdown correlated with a significant increase in influenza virus entry and replication. Conversely, supplementation with the potent Nrf2 activators sulforaphane (SFN) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) significantly decreased viral entry and replication.”

    The study goes on to explain that “Our data indicate that there is an inverse relationship between the levels of Nrf2 expression and the viral entry/replication. We also demonstrate that supplementation with Nrf2-activating antioxidants inhibits viral replication in human NEC, which may prove to be an attractive therapeutic intervention. Taken together, these data indicate potential mechanisms by which Nrf2-dependent gene expression regulates susceptibility to influenza in human epithelial cells.”

    It appears that there is a strong correlation between high levels of NRF2 and the ability for the body to Neutralize the Influenza A virus.

    Role of Nrf2 in host defense against influenza virus in cigarette smoke-exposed mice

    COPD patients are in the high risk category when it comes to dealing with flu. So it is interesting to note in this study that mice with high levels of NRF2 activation were able to have a higher survival rate when infected with the Influenza-A virus.

    To quote from the study, “The induction of antioxidant genes was observed for the lungs of wild-type mice but not those of Nrf2-deficient mice after cigarette smoke exposure. Cigarette smoke-

    exposed Nrf2-deficient mice showed higher rates of mortality than did wild-type mice after influenza virus infection, with enhanced peribronchial inflammation, lung permeability damage, and mucus hypersecretion. Lung oxidant levels and NF-κB-mediated inflammatory gene expression in the lungs were also enhanced in Nrf2-deficient mice. Our data indicate that the antioxidant pathway controlled by Nrf2 is pivotal for protection against the development of influenza virus-induced pulmonary inflammation and injury under oxidative conditions.”

    This study in conjunction with those listed above shows initial promise in dealing with the flu season.

    Information in this article is for educational purposes only. We encourage you to discuss with a medical professional and conduct your own research on this topic.

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      Michael J. Fox Foundation Nrf2 Research Study

      Michael J. Fox Foundation Nrf2 Research Study

       

      Age-standardised disability-adjusted life year...

      Age-standardised disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rates from Parkinson disease by country (per 100,000 inhabitants). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

      The Michael J. Fox Foundation is proactively pursuing a solution to slowing down the progression of Parkinson’s disease.  Parkinson’s is characterized by a constant loss of substantia nigra (specific cells of the brain region) which is responsible for the production of the chemical messenger dopamine.

      Current Parkinson’s therapy is involves administering drugs that mimic dopamine action. However, one of the downsides of the current approach is that the treatment becomes less effective as the disease progresses. In addition, the side effects of these treatments increase as the disease advances.

      The field of free radical biology is not a new one, in fact it had its beginnings about 40 years ago. One of the approaches of free radical biology involves (re)activating the NRF2 pathway in which the body up-regulates the production of antioxidant oxidants and survival genes. At the same time the activated NRF2 down-regulates fibrosis and inflammation.

      The Michael J. Fox Foundation pre-clinical model is administered through an oral dose of pioglitazone and trials are underway to test whether the NRF2 activation can prevent dopaminergic nigral cell loss. If so this approach may produce a simple alternative strategy to prevent the progression of the disease in PD patients. Parkinson’s falls into a group of over 200 diseases tied to oxidative stress. If this approach is successful there may be associated benefits for the other 200 illnesses and in particular other neurodegenerative disorders.

       

       

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        Could a Nrf2 Activator Stimulate Neuro Protection in Neurodegenerative Diseases?

        Could a Nrf2 Activator Stimulate Neuro Protection in Neurodegenerative Diseases?

        What are Neurodegenerative diseases?

        Neurological diseases are defined as disorders to the central and peripheral nervous systems including, but not limited to the brain, spinal chord, nerves and muscles.

        These diseases canEnglish: Complete neuron cell diagram. Neurons... result in neuro damage including nerve or cell death. Studies are underway to determine how effective NRF2 activation could be in preventing damage caused by degenerative diseases.The hope is that NRF2 can be used as a tool to slow down nerve damage and nerve cell death by protecting nerve cells such as neuronaxons, neurons, synapses, dendrites and the glia. High concentrations of nerve cells are found in the brain, spinal chord, peripheral ganglia and optic nerve. Neuro protection not only includes protecting current living cells but the resuscitation or reviving of damaged cells.

         

        Examples of Neurodegenerative Disorders:

        Nerve inflammation, certain types of cancers, multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Friedreich’s ataxia, spinal muscular atrophy, Huntington’s disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies, spinal muscular atrophy, neuromyelitis optica, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, glaucoma or peripheral neuropathies (diabetic or AIDS neuropathy).

        The disorders listed above are the well publicized diseases, but the conditions listed at the end of this article may also be associated with Neuro problems.

         

        Could NRF2 Activation and Protection Help?

        NRF2 activates protective or survival genes and enzymes within the cells. These antioxidant enzymes are produces within the cells and are different from direct antioxidant sources such as foods and supplements. The body’s own antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, Glutathione and Catalase have the ability to protect against damage from Free Radicals caused by Oxidative Stress. Oxidative stress has been linked to hundreds of diseases including neurological diseases. Oxidative stress may be caused from damage from chemicals, toxic substances, infections, radiation, injury, abnormally formed proteins, stressors, inflammation, seizures and a host of other factors.

        Possible conditions connected to Neurodegeneration:

        For more information visit Pubmed.gov and search Nrf2 and and of the diseases/conditions below, as well as oxidative stress and the condition listed.

        Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system, which may be subject of prevention and/or treatment according to present invention include, without being limited to, as knowledge in clinical manifestations advances, Absence of the Septum Pellucidum, Acid Lipase Disease , Acid Maltase Deficiency, Acquired Epileptiform Aphasia, Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, Adie’s Pupil, Adie’s Syndrome, Adrenoleukodystrophy, Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum, Agnosia, Aicardi Syndrome, Aicardi-Goutieres Syndrome Disorder, AIDS – Neurological Complications, Alexander Disease, Alpers’ Disease, Alternating Hemiplegia, Alzheimer’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Anencephaly, Aneurysm, Angelman Syndrome, Angiomatosis, Anoxia, Antiphospholipid Syndrome, Aphasia, Apraxia, Arachnoid Cysts, Arachnoiditis, Arnold-Chiari Malformation, Arteriovenous Malformation, Asperger Syndrome, Ataxia, Ataxia Telangiectasia, Ataxias and Cerebellar or Spinocerebellar Degeneration, Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke, Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism, Autonomic Dysfunction, Back Pain, Barth Syndrome, Batten Disease, Becker’s Myotonia, Behcet’s Disease, Bell’s Palsy, Benign Essential Blepharospasm, Benign Focal Amyotrophy, Benign Intracranial Hypertension, Bernhardt-Roth Syndrome, Binswanger’s Disease, Blepharospasm, Bloch-Sulzberger Syndrome, Brachial Plexus Birth Injuries, Brachial Plexus Injuries, Bradbury-Eggleston Syndrome, Brain and Spinal Tumors, Brain Aneurysm, Brain infarction, Brain ischemia, Brain Injury, Brown-Sequard Syndrome, Bulbospinal Muscular Atrophy, , CADASIL, Canavan Disease, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Causalgia, Cavernomas, Cavernous Angioma, Cavernous Malformation, Central Cervical Cord Syndrome, Central Cord Syndrome, Central Pain Syndrome, Central Pontine Myelinolysis, Cephalic Disorders, Ceramidase Deficiency, Cerebellar Degeneration, Cerebellar Hypoplasia, Cerebral Aneurysm, Cerebral Arteriosclerosis, Cerebral Atrophy, Cerebral Beriberi, Cerebral Cavernous Malformation, Cerebral Gigantism, Cerebral Hypoxia, Cerebral Palsy, Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, Chiari Malformation, Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, Chorea, Choreoacanthocytosis, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP), Chronic Orthostatic Intolerance, Chronic Pain, Cockayne Syndrome Type II, Coffin Lowry Syndrome, COFS, Colpocephaly, Coma, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Congenital Facial Diplegia, Congenital Myasthenia, Congenital Myopathy, Congenital Vascular Cavernous Malformations, Corticobasal Degeneration, Cranial Arteritis, Craniosynostosis, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Cumulative Trauma Disorders, Cushing’s Syndrome, Cytomegalic Inclusion Body Disease, Cytomegalovirus Infection, Dancing Eyes-Dancing Feet Syndrome, Dandy-Walker Syndrome, Dawson Disease, De Morsier’s Syndrome, Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease, Dejerine-Klumpke Palsy, Dementia, Dementia – Multi-Infarct, Dementia – Semantic, Dementia – Subcortical, Dementia With Lewy Bodies, Dentate Cerebellar Ataxia, Dentatorubral Atrophy, Dermatomyositis, Developmental Dyspraxia, Devic’s Syndrome, Diabetic Neuropathy, Diffuse Sclerosis, Dravet Syndrome, Dysautonomia, Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, Dysphagia, Dyspraxia, Dyssynergia Cerebellaris Myoclonica, Dyssynergia Cerebellaris Progressiva, Dystonias, , Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy, Empty Sella Syndrome, Encephalitis, Encephalitis Lethargica, Encephaloceles, Encephalopathy, Encephalopathy, familial infantile, with intracranial calcification and chronic cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis; Cree encephalitis; Pseudo-Torch syndrome; Pseudotoxoplasmosis syndrome, Encephalotrigeminal Angiomatosis, Epilepsy, Epileptic Hemiplegia, Erb-Duchenne and Dejerine-Klumpke Palsies, Erb’s Palsy, Essential Tremor, Extrapontine Myelinolysis, Fabry Disease, Fahr’s Syndrome, Fainting, Familial Dysautonomia, Familial Hemangioma, Familial Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification, Familial Periodic Paralyses, Familial Spastic Paralysis, Farber’s Disease, Febrile Seizures, Fibromuscular Dysplasia, Fisher Syndrome, Floppy Infant Syndrome, Foot Drop, Friedreich’s Ataxia, Frontotemporal Dementia , Gangliosidoses, Gaucher’s Disease, Gerstmann’s Syndrome, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Disease, Giant Axonal Neuropathy, Giant Cell Arteritis, Giant Cell Inclusion Disease, Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy, Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia, Glycogen Storage Disease, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, Head Injury, Headache, Hemicrania Continua, Hemifacial Spasm, Hemiplegia Alterans, Hereditary Neuropathies, Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia, Heredopathia Atactica Polyneuritiformis, Herpes Zoster, Herpes Zoster Oticus, Hirayama Syndrome, Holmes-Adie syndrome , Holoprosencephaly, HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy, Hughes Syndrome, Huntington’s Disease, Hydranencephaly, Hydrocephalus, Hydrocephalus – Normal Pressure, Hydromyelia, Hypercortisolism, Hypersomnia, Hypertonia, Hypotonia, Hypoxia, Immune-Mediated Encephalomyelitis, Inclusion Body Myositis, Incontinentia Pigmenti, Infantile Hypotonia, Infantile Neuroaxonal Dystrophy , Infantile Phytanic Acid Storage Disease, Infantile Refsum Disease, Infantile Spasms, Inflammatory Myopathies, Iniencephaly, Intestinal Lipodystrophy, Intracranial Cysts, Intracranial Hypertension, Isaac’s Syndrome, Joubert Syndrome, Kearns-Sayre Syndrome, Kennedy’s Disease, Kinsbourne syndrome, Kleine-Levin Syndrome, Klippel-Feil Syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome (KTS), Klüver-Bucy Syndrome, Korsakoffs Amnesic Syndrome, Krabbe Disease, Kugelberg-Welander Disease, Kuru, Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome, Landau-Kleffner Syndrome, Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment, Lateral Medullary Syndrome, Learning Disabilities, Leigh’s Disease, Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome, Leukodystrophy, Levine-Critchley Syndrome, Lewy Body Dementia, Lipid Storage Diseases, Lipoid Proteinosis, Lissencephaly, Locked-In Syndrome, Lou Gehrig’s Disease, Lupus – Neurological Sequelae, Lyme Disease – Neurological Complications, Machado-Joseph Disease, Macrencephaly, Megalencephaly, Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome, Meningitis, Meningitis and Encephalitis, Menkes Disease, Meralgia Paresthetica, Metachromatic Leukodystrophy, Microcephaly, Migraine, Miller Fisher Syndrome, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Mini-Strokes, Mitochondrial Myopathies, Moebius Syndrome, Monomelic Amyotrophy, Motor Neuron Diseases, Moyamoya Disease, Mucolipidoses, Mucopolysaccharidoses, Multifocal Motor Neuropathy, Multi-Infarct Dementia, Multiple Sclerosis, Multiple System Atrophy, Multiple System Atrophy with Orthostatic Hypotension, Muscular Dystrophy, Myasthenia – Congenital, Myasthenia Gravis, Myelinoclastic Diffuse Sclerosis, Myoclonic Encephalopathy of Infants, Myoclonus, Myopathy, Myopathy – Congenital, Myopathy – Thyrotoxic, Myotonia, Myotonia Congenita, Narcolepsy, Neuroacanthocytosis, Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation, Neurofibromatosis, Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, Neurological Complications of AIDS, Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease, Neurological Consequences of Cytomegalovirus Infection, Neurological Manifestations of Pompe Disease, Neurological Sequelae Of Lupus, Neuromyelitis Optica , Neuromyotonia, Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis, Neuronal Migration Disorders, Neuropathy – Hereditary, Neurosarcoidosis, Neurotoxicity, Nevus Cavernosus, Niemann-Pick Disease, Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus, Occipital Neuralgia, Ohtahara Syndrome, Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy, Opsoclonus Myoclonus, Orthostatic Hypotension, O’Sullivan-McLeod Syndrome, Overuse Syndrome, Pain – Chronic, Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration, Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Paresthesia, Parkinson’s Disease, Paroxysmal Choreoathetosis, Paroxysmal Hemicrania, Parry-Romberg, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease, Pena Shokeir II Syndrome, Perineural Cysts, Periodic Paralyses, Peripheral Neuropathy, Periventricular Leukomalacia, Persistent Vegetative State, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Phytanic Acid Storage Disease, Pick’s Disease, Pinched Nerve, Piriformis Syndrome, Pituitary Tumors, Polymyositis, Pompe Disease, Porencephaly, Postherpetic Neuralgia, Postinfectious Encephalomyelitis, Post-Polio Syndrome, Postural Hypotension, Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome, Postural Tachycardia Syndrome, Primary Dentatum Atrophy, Primary Lateral Sclerosis, Primary Progressive Aphasia, Prion Diseases, Progressive Hemifacial Atrophy, Progressive Locomotor Ataxia, Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Sclerosing Poliodystrophy, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Prosopagnosia, Pseudotumor Cerebri, Ramsay Hunt Syndrome I (formerly known as), Ramsay Hunt Syndrome II (formerly known as), Rasmussen’s Encephalitis, Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome, Refsum Disease, Refsum Disease – Infantile, Repetitive Motion Disorders, Repetitive Stress Injuries, Restless Legs Syndrome, Retrovirus-Associated Myelopathy, Rett Syndrome, Reye’s Syndrome, Rheumatic Encephalitis, Riley-Day Syndrome, Sacral Nerve Root Cysts, Saint Vitus Dance, Salivary Gland Disease, Sandhoff Disease, Schilder’s Disease, Schizencephaly, Seitelberger Disease, Seizure Disorder, Semantic Dementia, Septo-Optic Dysplasia, Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy (SMEI), Shaken Baby Syndrome, Shingles, Shy-Drager Syndrome, Sjögren’s Syndrome, Sleep Apnea, Sleeping Sickness, Sotos Syndrome, Spasticity, Spina Bifida, Spinal Cord Infarction, Spinal Cord Injury, Spinal Cord Tumors, Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Spinocerebellar Atrophy, Spinocerebellar Degeneration, Steele-Richardson-Olszewski Syndrome, Stiff-Person Syndrome, Striatonigral Degeneration, Stroke, Sturge-Weber Syndrome, Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, Subcortical Arteriosclerotic Encephalopathy, SUNCT Headache, Swallowing Disorders, Sydenham Chorea, Syncope, Syphilitic Spinal Sclerosis, Syringohydromyelia, Syringomyelia, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Tabes Dorsalis, Tardive Dyskinesia, Tarlov Cysts, Tay-Sachs Disease, Temporal Arteritis, Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome, Thomsen’s Myotonia, Thoracic Outlet Syndrome, Thyrotoxic Myopathy, Tic Douloureux, Todd’s Paralysis, Tourette Syndrome, Transient Ischemic Attack, Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies, Transverse Myelitis, Traumatic Brain Injury, Tremor, Trigeminal Neuralgia, Tropical Spastic Paraparesis, Troyer Syndrome, Tuberous Sclerosis, Vascular Erectile Tumor, Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems , Von Economo’s Disease, Von Hippel-Lindau Disease (VHL), Von Recklinghausen’s Disease, Wallenberg’s Syndrome, Werdnig-Hoffman Disease, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, West Syndrome, Whiplash, Whipple’s Disease, Williams Syndrome, Wilson’s Disease, Wolman’s Disease , X-Linked Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy, Zellweger Syndrome, optic neuritis, Chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromialgia, psychiatric diseases such as mood disorders, major depression, bipolar syndrome, psycosis, eschizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive-syndrome, etc., Toxic or drug abuse diseases such as alcoholism and drug abuse, Encephalopathy like hepatic encephalopathy.

        Psychiatric disorders, which may be subject of prevention and/or treatment according to present invention include those listed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) published by the American Psychiatric Association, and covers all mental health disorders for both children and adults. In particular, psychiatric disorders include a disorder selected from Acute Stress Disorder; Adjustment Disorder Unspecified; Adjustment Disorder with Anxiety; Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood; Adjustment Disorder with Disturbance of Conduct; Adjustment Disorder with Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood; Adjustment Disorder with Mixed Disturbance of Emotions and Conduct; Agoraphobia without History of Panic Disorder; Anorexia Nervosa; Antisocial Personality Disorder; Anxiety Disorder Due to Medical Condition; Anxiety Disorder, NOS; Avoidant Personality Disorder; Bipolar Disorder NOS; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, In Full Remission; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, In Partial Remission; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, Mild; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, Moderate; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, Severe With Psychotic Features; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, Severe Without Psychotic Features; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, Unspecified; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, In Full Remission; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, In Partial Remission; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, Mild; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, Moderate; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, Severe With Psychotic Features; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, Severe Without Psychotic Features; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, Unspecified; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, In Full Remission; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, In Partial Remission; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, Mild; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, Moderate; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, Severe With Psychotic Features; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, Severe Without Psychotic Features; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, Unspecified; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Unspecified; Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Hypomanic; Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, In Full Remission; Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, In Partial Remission; Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, Mild; Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, Moderate; Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, Severe With Psychotic Features; Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, Severe Without Psychotic Features; Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, Unspecified; Bipolar II Disorder; Body Dysmorphic Disorder; Borderline Personality Disorder; Breathing-Related Sleep Disorder; Brief Psychotic Disorder; Bulimia Nervosa; Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder; Conversion Disorder; Cyclothymic Disorder; Delusional Disorder; Dependent Personality Disorder; Depersonalization Disorder; Depressive Disorder NOS; Dissociative Amnesia; Dissociative Disorder NOS; Dissociative Fugue; Dissociative Identity Disorder; Dyspareunia; Dyssomnia NOS; Dyssomnia Related to (Another Disorder); Dysthymic Disorder; Eating Disorder NOS; Exhibitionism; Female Dyspareunia Due to Medical Condition; Female Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Due to Medical Condition; Female Orgasmic Disorder; Female Sexual Arousal Disorder; Fetishism; Frotteurism; Gender Identity Disorder in Adolescents or Adults; Gender Identity Disorder in Children; Gender Identity Disorder NOS; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Histrionic Personality Disorder; Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder; Hypochondriasis; Impulse -Control Disorder NOS; Insomnia Related to (Another Disorder); Intermittent Explosive Disorder; Kleptomania; Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, In Full Remission; Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, In Partial Remission; Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Mild; Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Moderate; Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Severe With Psychotic Features; Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Severe Without Psychotic Features; Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Unspecified; Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, In Full Remission; Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, In Partial Remission; Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Mild; Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Moderate; Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Severe With Psychotic Features; Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Severe Without Psychotic Features; Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Unspecified; Male Dyspareunia Due to Medical Condition; Male Erectile Disorder; Male Erectile Disorder Due to Medical Condition; Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Due to Medical Condition; Male Orgasmic Disorder; Mood Disorder Due to Medical Condition; Narcissistic Personality Disorder; Narcolepsy; Nightmare Disorder; Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder; Other Female Sexual Dysfunction Due to Medical Condition; Other Male Sexual Dysfunction Due to Medical Condition; Pain Disorder Associated with both Psychological Factors and Medical Conditions; Pain Disorder Associated with Psychological Features; Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia; Panic Disorder without Agoraphobia; Paranoid Personality Disorder; Paraphilia, NOS; Parasomnia NOS; Pathological Gambling; Pedophilia; Personality Disorder NOS; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; Premature Ejaculation; Primary Hypersomnia; Primary Insomnia; Psychotic Disorder Due to Medical Condition, with Delusions; Psychotic Disorder Due to Medical Condition, with Hallucinations; Psychotic Disorder, NOS; Pyromania; Schizoaffective Disorder; Schizoid Personality Disorder; Schizophrenia, Catatonic Type; Schizophrenia, Disorganized Type; Schizophrenia, Paranoid Type; Schizophrenia, Residual Type; Schizophrenia, Undifferentiated Type; Schizophreniform Disorder; Schizotypal Personality Disorder; Sexual Aversion Disorder; Sexual Disorder NOS; Sexual Dysfunction NOS; Sexual Masochism; Sexual Sadism; Shared Psychotic Disorder; Sleep Disorder Due to A Medical Condition, Hypersomnia Type; Sleep Disorder Due to A Medical Condition, Insomnia Type; Sleep Disorder Due to A Medical Condition, Mixed Type; Sleep Disorder Due to A Medical Condition, Parasomnia Type; Sleep Terror Disorder; Sleepwalking Disorder; Social Phobia; Somatization Disorder; Somatoform Disorder NOS; Specific Phobia.

        Information provided in this post is for educational purposes only. Contact a qualified medical professional for information regarding your personal circumstances.

         

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          Multiple Sclerosis, Oxidative Stress and Nrf2: What you Need to Know!

          Multiple Sclerosis, Oxidative Stress and Nrf2: What you Need to Know!

          What is Multiple Sclerosis?

          English: Detail of plate 4, figure 4 of Pathol...

          Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that damages the nerves in the brain and spinal cord. This damage causes loss of muscle control, tingling of the nerves or numbness in the body. Vision and balance can also be negatively impacted. Sclerosis means the creation or buildup of scar tissue in the brain and spine. This buildup destroys the protective covering (myelin) around the nerves. This in turn interrupts the communications between the brain, spinal cord and other areas of the body.

          Secondarily, the disease generates inflammatory-mediated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species within the body. Those that study Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) know this has a negative impact on the production of protective antioxidant and detoxication enzymes within the cells.

          The disease affects 400,000 plus Americans according to the WebMD website. Statistically more females are impacted by the disease than males. Prime ages for risk are between 20 and 50 years old.

           

          Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms:

          1. Vision problems: Blurred and or double vision
          2. Eye pain
          3. Muscle weakness
          4. Coordination problems
          5. Muscle stiffness
          6. Bladder control problems

          NRF2, Oxidative Stress and Multiple Sclerosis Studies

          NRF2 activation or balancing may help MS patients in the following ways.

          1. Reduction or slowdown of scar tissue creation. NRF2 activation has been shown to reduce fibrosis in the body.
          2. Increased production of protective antioxidant and detoxication enzymes
          3. Nrf2 can modulate an autoimmune neuroinflammatory response
          4. A study published in Pharmacogenomics Journal (June 2012) showed NRF2 treatment worked best when consistently applied as opposed to once off “boost” treatments.
          5. Production of antioxidant genes regulate inflammatory cytokines and endogenous anti-oxidants which are variables affecting disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition they exert neuroprotective effects directly.(See Sci Rep. 2011;1:201. Epub 2011 Dec 19)

          Information provided on this site is for educational purposes only. Do your own research, and consult with a medical professional about your findings.

          [cite source=’pubmed’]22987661[/cite]

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